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      Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and α-Klotho Protein Are Associated with Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Non-Dialysis CKD Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and α-Klotho protein appear to have an important role in the pathogenesis of CKD-mineral and bone disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of FGF-23 and α-Klotho levels with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with non-dialysis CKD. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study, enrolling participants with non-dialysis CKD from a single center in Greece. At enrollment, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured (mGFR) and plasma levels of carboxyl terminal FGF-23 (cFGF-23) and soluble α-Klotho (sKlotho) were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Participants were followed for up to 5 years or until the occurrence of the primary endpoint of initiation of renal replacement therapy or death. Multivariate regression tree analysis was used to identify informative baseline parameters in order to categorize participants. Also, using median values of cFGF-23 and sKlotho, participants were categorized into 4 groups, in whom survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. Results: 128 participants were enrolled with a median mGFR of 41.5 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> (IQR = 28.2). Baseline mGFR correlated with cFGF-23 and sKlotho ( r = −0.54 and r = 0.49, respectively; p < 0.0001 for both). cFGF-23 and sKlotho levels correlated negatively ( r = −0.24, p = 0.006). Multivariate regression tree analysis resulted in 3 groups defined by cutoff values of mGFR (60.9 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>) and phosphate (3.7 mg/dL). These groups correlated with CKD stage, cFGF-23, and sKlotho ( p < 0.0001 for all). During a median follow-up of 36 months (IQR = 22), 40 (31.2%) participants reached the primary endpoint (31 initiated renal replacement therapy, 9 died). Survival to primary endpoint differed among the 4 groups formed using median values of both biomarkers, with the low FGF-23/high Klotho and high FGF-23/low Klotho having the longest and shortest survival, respectively. High FGF-23/low Klotho group, compared to the opposite one, had a significantly elevated risk of the primary outcome (HR, 6.8; 95% CI, 2.3–19.6; p = 0.0004). Conclusions: In patients with CKD stages 1–5, the combination of higher cFGF-23 and lower sKlotho levels along with mGFR and serum phosphate was associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The utility of combinations of traditional and novel biomarkers to predict outcomes warrants further study.

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          Most cited references 33

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          A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate.

          Equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are routinely used to assess kidney function. Current equations have limited precision and systematically underestimate measured GFR at higher values. To develop a new estimating equation for GFR: the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Cross-sectional analysis with separate pooled data sets for equation development and validation and a representative sample of the U.S. population for prevalence estimates. Research studies and clinical populations ("studies") with measured GFR and NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), 1999 to 2006. 8254 participants in 10 studies (equation development data set) and 3896 participants in 16 studies (validation data set). Prevalence estimates were based on 16,032 participants in NHANES. GFR, measured as the clearance of exogenous filtration markers (iothalamate in the development data set; iothalamate and other markers in the validation data set), and linear regression to estimate the logarithm of measured GFR from standardized creatinine levels, sex, race, and age. In the validation data set, the CKD-EPI equation performed better than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation, especially at higher GFR (P < 0.001 for all subsequent comparisons), with less bias (median difference between measured and estimated GFR, 2.5 vs. 5.5 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)), improved precision (interquartile range [IQR] of the differences, 16.6 vs. 18.3 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)), and greater accuracy (percentage of estimated GFR within 30% of measured GFR, 84.1% vs. 80.6%). In NHANES, the median estimated GFR was 94.5 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (IQR, 79.7 to 108.1) vs. 85.0 (IQR, 72.9 to 98.5) mL/min per 1.73 m(2), and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease was 11.5% (95% CI, 10.6% to 12.4%) versus 13.1% (CI, 12.1% to 14.0%). The sample contained a limited number of elderly people and racial and ethnic minorities with measured GFR. The CKD-EPI creatinine equation is more accurate than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation and could replace it for routine clinical use. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
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            Fibroblast growth factor 23 is elevated before parathyroid hormone and phosphate in chronic kidney disease.

            Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphorus metabolism and is a strong predictor of mortality in dialysis patients. FGF23 is thought to be an early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in the initial stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We measured FGF23 in baseline samples from 3879 patients in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study, which is a diverse cohort of patients with CKD stage 2-4. Mean serum phosphate and median parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were in the normal range, but median FGF23 was markedly greater than in healthy populations, and increased significantly with decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). High levels of FGF23, defined as being above 100 RU/ml, were more common than secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperphosphatemia in all strata of eGFR. The threshold of eGFR at which the slope of FGF23 increased was significantly higher than the corresponding threshold for PTH based on non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Thus, increased FGF23 is a common manifestation of CKD that develops earlier than increased phosphate or PTH. Hence, FGF23 measurements may be a sensitive early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in patients with CKD and normal serum phosphate levels.
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              Fibroblast growth factor 23 and left ventricular hypertrophy in chronic kidney disease.

              Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a phosphorus-regulating hormone. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), circulating FGF-23 levels are markedly elevated and independently associated with mortality. Left ventricular hypertrophy and coronary artery calcification are potent risk factors for mortality in CKD, and FGFs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both myocardial hypertrophy and atherosclerosis. We conducted a cross-sectional study to test the hypothesis that elevated FGF-23 concentrations are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and coronary artery calcification in patients with CKD. In this study, 162 subjects with CKD underwent echocardiograms and computed tomography scans to assess left ventricular mass index and coronary artery calcification; echocardiograms also were obtained in 58 subjects without CKD. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses in the overall sample, increased log FGF-23 concentrations were independently associated with increased left ventricular mass index (5% increase per 1-SD increase in log FGF-23; P=0.01) and risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio per 1-SD increase in log FGF-23, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 4.2). These associations strengthened in analyses restricted to the CKD subjects (11% increase in left ventricular mass index per 1-SD increase in log FGF-23; P=0.01; odds ratio of left ventricular hypertrophy per 1-SD increase in log FGF-23, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 4.2). Although the highest tertile of FGF-23 was associated with a 2.4-fold increased risk of coronary artery calcification > or =100 versus <100 U compared with the lowest tertile (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 5.5), the association was no longer significant after multivariable adjustment. FGF-23 is independently associated with left ventricular mass index and left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with CKD. Whether increased FGF-23 is a marker or a potential mechanism of myocardial hypertrophy in CKD requires further study.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2020
                December 2020
                09 October 2020
                : 45
                : 6
                : 900-915
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Papageorgiou Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece
                bDepartment of Nephrology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
                c3rd Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Papageorgiou Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece
                dDepartment of Nephrology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Hippokration Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece
                Author notes
                *Eleni Manou, Nephrology Department, Papageorgiou General Hospital, New Efcarpia Ring Road, GR–56403 Thessaloniki (Greece), elmanou@webcoreforscience.com
                Article
                510351 Kidney Blood Press Res 2020;45:900–915
                10.1159/000510351
                33040068
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 4, Pages: 16
                Categories
                Research Article

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