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      Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Pregnant Women: A Prospective Population-Based Study in Tianjin, China

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          Abstract

          Objective

          We compared the increases in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) based on the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and its risk factors in Tianjin, China, over a 12-year period. We also examined the changes in the prevalence using the criteria of International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG).

          Methods

          In 2010-2012, 18589 women who registered within 12 weeks of gestation underwent a glucose challenge test (GCT) at 24-28 gestational weeks. Amongst them, 2953 women with 1-hour plasma glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L underwent a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 781 women had a positive GCT but absented from the standard OGTT. An adjusted prevalence of GDM was calculated for the whole cohort of women by including an estimate of the proportion of women with positive GCTs who did not have OGTTs but would have been expected to have GDM. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using the IADPSG criteria. The prevalence of GDM risk factors was compared to the 1999 survey.

          Results

          The adjusted prevalence of GDM by the 1999 WHO criteria was 8.1%, a 3.5-fold increase as in 1999. Using the IADPSG criteria increased the adjusted prevalence further to 9.3%. Advanced age, higher pre-pregnancy body mass index, Han-nationality, higher systolic blood pressure (BP), a family history of diabetes, weight gain during pregnancy and habitual smoking were risk factors for GDM. Compared to the 1999 survey, the prevalence of overweight plus obesity had increased by 1.8 folds, age≥30 years by 2.3 folds, systolic BP by 2.3 mmHg over the 12-year period.

          Conclusions

          Increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and older age at pregnancy were accompanied by increasing prevalence of GDM, further increased by change in diagnostic criteria.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Childhood obesity and metabolic imprinting: the ongoing effects of maternal hyperglycemia.

          The purpose of this study was to determine how the range of measured maternal glycemia in pregnancy relates to risk of obesity in childhood. Universal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening (a 50-g glucose challenge test [GCT]) was performed in two regions (Northwest and Hawaii) of a large diverse HMO during 1995-2000, and GDM was diagnosed/treated using a 3-h 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) criteria. Measured weight in offspring (n = 9,439) was ascertained 5-7 years later to calculate sex-specific weight-for-age percentiles using U.S. norms (1963-1994 standard) and then classified by maternal positive GCT (1 h >or= 7.8 mmol/l) and OGTT results (1 or >or=2 of the 4 time points abnormal: fasting, 1 h, 2 h, or 3 h by Carpenter and Coustan and NDDG criteria). There was a positive trend for increasing childhood obesity at age 5-7 years (P < 0.0001; 85th and 95th percentiles) across the range of increasing maternal glucose screen values, which remained after adjustment for potential confounders including maternal weight gain, maternal age, parity, ethnicity, and birth weight. The risk of childhood obesity in offspring of mothers with GDM by NDDG criteria (treated) was attenuated compared with the risks for the groups with lesser degrees of hyperglycemia (untreated). The relationships were similar among Caucasians and non-Caucasians. Stratification by birth weight also revealed these effects in children of normal birth weight (
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            Prepregnancy BMI and the risk of gestational diabetes: a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis.

            The objective of this study is to assess and quantify the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) according to prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI). The design is a systematic review of observational studies published in the last 30 years. Four electronic databases were searched for publications (1977-2007). BMI was elected as the only measure of obesity, and all diagnostic criteria for GDM were accepted. Studies with selective screening for GDM were excluded. There were no language restrictions. The methodological quality of primary studies was assessed. Some 1745 citations were screened, and 70 studies (two unpublished) involving 671 945 women were included (59 cohorts and 11 case-controls). Most studies were of high or medium quality. Compared with women with a normal BMI, the unadjusted pooled odds ratio (OR) of an underweight woman developing GDM was 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69 to 0.82). The OR for overweight, moderately obese and morbidly obese women were 1.97 (95% CI 1.77 to 2.19), 3.01 (95% CI 2.34 to 3.87) and 5.55 (95% CI 4.27 to 7.21) respectively. For every 1 kg m(-2) increase in BMI, the prevalence of GDM increased by 0.92% (95% CI 0.73 to 1.10). The risk of GDM is positively associated with prepregnancy BMI. This information is important when counselling women planning a pregnancy.
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              Epidemiology of gestational diabetes mellitus and its association with Type 2 diabetes.

               M Hod,  Y Yogev,  Asa Ben-Hur (2004)
              Gestational diabetes (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance that begins or is first recognized during pregnancy. Although it is a well-known cause of pregnancy complications, its epidemiology has not been studied systematically. Our aim was to review the recent data on the epidemiology of GDM, and to describe the close relationship of GDM to prediabetic states, in addition to the risk of future deterioration in insulin resistance and development of overt Type 2 diabetes. We found that differences in screening programmes and diagnostic criteria make it difficult to compare frequencies of GDM among various populations. Nevertheless, ethnicity has been proven to be an independent risk factor for GDM, which varies in prevalence in direct proportion to the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in a given population or ethnic group. There are several identifiable predisposing factors for GDM, and in the absence of risk factors, the incidence of GDM is low. Therefore, some authors suggest that selective screening may be cost-effective. Importantly, women with an early diagnosis of GDM, in the first half of pregnancy, represent a high-risk subgroup, with an increased incidence of obstetric complications, recurrent GDM in subsequent pregnancies, and future development of Type 2 diabetes. Other factors that place women with GDM at increased risk of Type 2 diabetes are obesity and need for insulin for glycaemic control. Furthermore, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and afterwards may be more prevalent in women with GDM. We conclude that the epidemiological data suggest an association between several high-risk prediabetic states, GDM, and Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is suggested as a pathogenic linkage. It is possible that improving insulin sensitivity with diet, exercise and drugs such as metformin may reduce the risk of diabetes in individuals at high risk, such as women with polycystic ovary syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, and a history of GDM. Large controlled studies are needed to clarify this issue and to develop appropriate diabetic prevention strategies that address the potentially modifiable risk factors.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                23 March 2015
                2015
                : 10
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China
                [2 ]Tianjin Women and Children’s Health Centre, Tianjin, China
                [3 ]Population Cancer Research Program and Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
                [4 ]Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Hong Kong Institute of Diabetes and Obesity, International Diabetes Federation Centre of Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong-Prince of Wales Hospital-International Diabetes Federation Centre of Education, Hong Kong SAR, China
                [5 ]Chronic Disease Epidemiology Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America
                University of Tolima, COLOMBIA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: XLY GH ZJY JCC JHL. Performed the experiments: JHL PS CPZ HGT FXZ SZ LD LLL. Analyzed the data: JHL. Wrote the paper: JHL XLY GH ZJY JCC.

                Article
                PONE-D-14-30454
                10.1371/journal.pone.0121029
                4370728
                25799433

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 5, Pages: 12
                Product
                Funding
                This project was supported by BRIDGES (Grant number: LT09-227). BRIDGES is an International Diabetes Federation program supported by an educational grant from Lilly Diabetes. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the manuscript and on Figshare via http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1305840.

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