The prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and the quality of root fillings and restorations were determined in two Canadian populations differing in avail-ability of endodontists. Radiographs of first-time university patients aged 25-40 years in Toronto and Saskatoon were examined for missing teeth, presence and standard of root fillings, standard of restoration, and AP according to the Periapical Index. Patients with root-filled teeth were invited for clinical examination and interview to inspect the restorations, and to reveal the providers of endodontic treatment and reasons for extractions of missing teeth. Chi-square and independent t-tests interpreted at the 5% significance level were used to examine associations between the prevalence of AP in root-filled teeth and the standard of the root filling, restoration, and providers of treatment. Proportion of patients with root-filled teeth was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in Toronto than in Saskatoon (39 and 26%, respectively). Presence of AP about root-filled teeth (44% in Toronto, 51% in Saskatoon) was significantly associated with poor density (OR = 2.7) short (OR = 2.4) and long (OR = 2.8) root fillings, and with poor radiographic quality of the restoration (OR = 1.7) Prevalence of AP did not differ significantly between teeth treated by generalists and endodontists. The prevalence of AP in root-filled and untreated teeth was comparable to that reported in previous methodologically compatible studies. The quality of both the root filling and the restoration were found to impact on the periapical health of root-filled teeth, with the impact of the restoration being most critical when the quality of the root filling was adequate.