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      Prolonged nonpulsatile left heart bypass diminishes vascular contractility.

      The International journal of artificial organs
      Animals, Aorta, physiology, Blood Flow Velocity, Goats, Heart Bypass, Left, Heart-Assist Devices, Hemodynamics, drug effects, Nitroglycerin, pharmacology, Norepinephrine, blood, Pulsatile Flow, Pulse, Vascular Resistance, Vasoconstriction, Vasoconstrictor Agents, Vasodilator Agents

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          Abstract

          We investigated possible functional changes in the vascular system accompanying the morphological change in prolonged nonpulsatile left heart bypass (LHB). Three adult goats underwent pulsatile LHB. Two weeks postoperatively, the pulsatile ventricular assist device was replaced with a centrifugal pump and nonpulsatile LHB was subsequently conducted for 4 weeks. The mean aortic pulse pressure was 39 and 16 mmHg during the pulsatile and nonpulsatile LHB, respectively Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and plasma norepinephrine levels were measured at the end of pulsatile LHB (PUL), and at the end of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th week of nonpulsatile LHB (NP1w, NP2w, NP3w, NP4w, respectively). At each point, 50 microg/kg nitroglycerin and 1 microg/kg norepinephrine were injected and the minimal and maximal values of SVR after injection were calculated as parameters reflecting the vascular tonus and contractility. The SVR and plasma nor epinephrine level did not significantly change during the entire course (SVR: 1106, 895, 982, 920, and 938 dyne x sec x cm(-5); norepinephrine level: 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.1 ng/ml; at PUL, NP1w, NP2w, NP3w, and NP4w, respectively). The minimal value of SVR after nitroglycerin injection remained unchanged, indicating that vascular tonus was stable during the entire course (618, 687, 623, 560, 653 dyne x sec x cm(-5), respectively). In contrast, the maximal value of SVR after norepinephrine injection at NP3w and NP4w (1695 and 1759 dyne x sec x cm(-5)) became significantly reduced compared to that at PUL (2346 dyne x sec x cm(-5)). These results indicated that prolonged nonpulsatile left heart bypass did not affect the vascular tonus, but significantly diminished the vascular contractility.

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