The number of patients with cardiovascular diseases is rapidly increasing in the world. The workload of existing clinicians is consequently increasing. However, the number of cardiovascular clinicians is declining. In this paper, we aim to design a mobile and automatic system to improve the abilities of patients’ cardiovascular health management while also reducing clinicians’ workload. Our system includes both hardware and cloud software devices based on recent advances in Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. A small hardware device was designed to collect high-quality Electrocardiogram (ECG) data from the human body. A novel deep-learning-based cloud service was developed and deployed to achieve automatic and accurate cardiovascular disease detection. Twenty types of diagnostic items including sinus rhythm, tachyarrhythmia, and bradyarrhythmia are supported. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our system. Our hardware device can guarantee high-quality ECG data by removing high-/low-frequency distortion and reverse lead detection with 0.9011 Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC–AUC) score. Our deep-learning-based cloud service supports 20 types of diagnostic items, 17 of them have more than 0.98 ROC–AUC score. For a real world application, the system has been used by around 20,000 users in twenty provinces throughout China. As a consequence, using this service, we could achieve both active and passive health management through a lightweight mobile application on the WeChat Mini Program platform. We believe that it can have a broader impact on cardiovascular health management in the world.