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      Long‐term safety and functional outcomes of delandistrogene moxeparvovec gene therapy in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: A phase 1/2a nonrandomized trial

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          Abstract

          Introduction/Aims

          Delandistrogene moxeparvovec is indicated in the United States for the treatment of ambulatory pediatric patients aged 4 through 5 years with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) with a confirmed mutation in the DMD gene. Long‐term delandistrogene moxeparvovec microdystrophin protein (a shortened dystrophin that retains key functional domains of the wild‐type protein) expression may positively alter disease progression in patients with DMD. We evaluated long‐term safety and functional outcomes of delandistrogene moxeparvovec in patients with DMD.

          Methods

          An open‐label, phase 1/2a, nonrandomized controlled trial (Study 101; NCT03375164) enrolled ambulatory males, ≥4 to <8 years old, with DMD. Patients received a single intravenous infusion (2.0 × 10 14 vg/kg by supercoiled quantitative polymerase chain reaction) of delandistrogene moxeparvovec and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) 1 day before to 30 days after treatment. The primary endpoint was safety. Functional outcomes were change from baseline in North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) and timed function tests.

          Results

          Four patients (mean age, 5.1 years) were enrolled. There were 18 treatment‐related adverse events; all occurred within 70 days posttreatment and resolved. Mean NSAA total score increased from 20.5 to 27.5, baseline to year 4, with a mean (standard deviation) change of +7.0 (2.9). Post hoc analysis demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful 9‐point difference in NSAA score, relative to a propensity‐score–weighted external control cohort (least‐squares mean [standard error] = 9.4 [3.4]; P = .0125).

          Discussion

          Gene transfer therapy with delandistrogene moxeparvovec treatment is well tolerated, with a favorable safety profile. Functional improvements are sustained through 4 years, suggesting delandistrogene moxeparvovec may positively alter disease progression.

          Abstract

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          Most cited references7

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          Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 1: diagnosis, and pharmacological and psychosocial management.

          Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, progressive disease that affects 1 in 3600-6000 live male births. Although guidelines are available for various aspects of DMD, comprehensive clinical care recommendations do not exist. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention selected 84 clinicians to develop care recommendations using the RAND Corporation-University of California Los Angeles Appropriateness Method. The DMD Care Considerations Working Group evaluated assessments and interventions used in the management of diagnostics, gastroenterology and nutrition, rehabilitation, and neuromuscular, psychosocial, cardiovascular, respiratory, orthopaedic, and surgical aspects of DMD. These recommendations, presented in two parts, are intended for the wide range of practitioners who care for individuals with DMD. They provide a framework for recognising the multisystem primary manifestations and secondary complications of DMD and for providing coordinated multidisciplinary care. In part 1 of this Review, we describe the methods used to generate the recommendations, and the overall perspective on care, pharmacological treatment, and psychosocial management. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Assessment of Systemic Delivery of rAAVrh74.MHCK7.micro-dystrophin in Children With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy : A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial

            This nonrandomized controlled trial analyzes safety, biological, and functional outcomes associated with the infusion of rAAVrh74.MHCK7.micro-dystrophin gene transfer in a small group of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Question Is rAAVrh74.MHCK7.micro-dystrophin gene transfer safe and well tolerated in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy? Findings In this nonrandomized controlled trial of 4 young patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, rAAVrh74.MHCK7.micro-dystrophin gene transfer was well tolerated, with minimal adverse events, and was associated with robust micro-dystrophin expression, reduced serum creatine kinase levels, and functional improvement as measured by the North Star Ambulatory Assessment. Meaning These results indicated the safe systemic delivery of micro-dystrophin transgene and targeted expression of functional micro-dystrophin protein product, suggesting the potential for rAAVrh74.MHCK7.micro-dystrophin to provide clinically meaningful functional improvement that is greater than the standard of care. Importance Micro-dystrophin gene transfer shows promise for treating patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype rh74 (rAAVrh74) and codon-optimized human micro-dystrophin driven by a skeletal and cardiac muscle-specific promoter with enhanced cardiac expression (MHCK7). Objective To identify the 1-year safety and tolerability of intravenous rAAVrh74.MHCK7.micro-dystrophin in patients with DMD. Design, Setting, and Participants This open-label, phase 1/2a nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted at the Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. It began on November 2, 2017, with a planned duration of follow-up of 3 years, ending in March 2021. The first 4 patients who met eligibility criteria were enrolled, consisting of ambulatory male children with DMD without preexisting AAVrh74 antibodies and a stable corticosteroid dose (≥12 weeks). Interventions A single dose of 2.0 × 10 14 vg/kg rAAVrh74.MHCK7.micro-dystrophin was infused through a peripheral limb vein. Daily prednisolone, 1 mg/kg, started 1 day before gene delivery (30-day taper after infusion). Main Outcomes and Measures Safety was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included micro-dystrophin expression by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Functional outcomes measured by North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) and serum creatine kinase were exploratory outcomes. Results Four patients were included (mean [SD] age at enrollment, 4.8 [1.0] years). All adverse events (n = 53) were considered mild (33 [62%]) or moderate (20 [38%]), and no serious adverse events occurred. Eighteen adverse events were considered treatment related, the most common of which was vomiting (9 of 18 events [50%]). Three patients had transiently elevated γ-glutamyltransferase, which resolved with corticosteroids. At 12 weeks, immunohistochemistry of gastrocnemius muscle biopsy specimens revealed robust transgene expression in all patients, with a mean of 81.2% of muscle fibers expressing micro-dystrophin with a mean intensity of 96% at the sarcolemma. Western blot showed a mean expression of 74.3% without fat or fibrosis adjustment and 95.8% with adjustment. All patients had confirmed vector transduction and showed functional improvement of NSAA scores and reduced creatine kinase levels (posttreatment vs baseline) that were maintained for 1 year. Conclusions and Relevance This trial showed rAAVrh74.MHCK7.micro-dystrophin to be well tolerated and have minimal adverse events; the safe delivery of micro-dystrophin transgene; the robust expression and correct localization of micro-dystrophin protein; and improvements in creatine kinase levels and NSAA scores. These findings suggest that rAAVrh74.MHCK7.micro-dystrophin can provide functional improvement that is greater than that observed under standard of care. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03375164
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              Categorising trajectories and individual item changes of the North Star Ambulatory Assessment in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

              Functional variability among boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is well recognised and complicates interpretation of clinical studies. We hypothesised that boys with DMD could be clustered into groups sharing similar trajectories of ambulatory function over time, as measured by the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) total score. We also explored associations with other variables such as age, functional abilities, and genotype. Using the NorthStar Clinical Network database, 395 patients with >1 NSAA assessment were identified. We utilised latent class trajectory analysis of longitudinal NSAA scores, which produced evidence for at least four clusters of boys sharing similar trajectories versus age in decreasing order of clinical severity: 25% of the boys were in cluster 1 (NSAA falling to ≤ 5 at age ~10y), 35% were in cluster 2 (NSAA ≤ 5 ~12y), 21% in were cluster 3 (NSAA≤ 5 ~14y), and 19% in cluster 4 (NSAA > 5 up to 15y). Mean ages at diagnosis of DMD were similar across clusters (4.2, 3.9, 4.3, and 4.8y, respectively). However, at the first NSAA assessment, a significant (p<0.05) association was observed between earlier declining clusters and younger age, worse NSAA, slower rise from supine, slower 10 metre walk/run times, and younger age of steroid initiation. In order to assess the probability of observing complete loss of function for individual NSAA items, we examined the proportion of patients who shifted from a score of 1 or 2 at baseline to a score of 0. We also assessed the probability of gain of function using the inverse assessment and stratified the probability of deterioration, improvement–or static behavior–by age ranges and using baseline functional status. Using this tool, our study provides a comprehensive assessment of the NSAA in a large population of patients with DMD and, for the first time, describes discrete clusters of disease progression; this will be invaluable for future DMD clinical trial design and interpretation of findings.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Muscle & Nerve
                Muscle and Nerve
                Wiley
                0148-639X
                1097-4598
                January 2024
                August 14 2023
                January 2024
                : 69
                : 1
                : 93-98
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Center for Gene Therapy Nationwide Children's Hospital Columbus Ohio USA
                [2 ] Department of Pediatrics The Ohio State University Columbus Ohio USA
                [3 ] Departments of Pathology and Neurology, The Ohio State University Columbus Ohio USA
                [4 ] Sarepta Therapeutics, Inc. Cambridge Massachusetts USA
                Article
                10.1002/mus.27955
                37577753
                c7820052-ece9-4fd7-9283-63f2879cea58
                © 2024

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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