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      Spintronics: Fundamentals and applications

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          Abstract

          Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. This article reviews the current status of this subject, including both recent advances and well-established results. The primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport in semiconductors and metals. Spin transport differs from charge transport in that spin is a nonconserved quantity in solids due to spin-orbit and hyperfine coupling. The authors discuss in detail spin decoherence mechanisms in metals and semiconductors. Various theories of spin injection and spin-polarized transport are applied to hybrid structures relevant to spin-based devices and fundamental studies of materials properties. Experimental work is reviewed with the emphasis on projected applications, in which external electric and magnetic fields and illumination by light will be used to control spin and charge dynamics to create new functionalities not feasible or ineffective with conventional electronics.

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          Most cited references 691

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          Electronic properties of two-dimensional systems

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            Giant Magnetoresistance of (001)Fe/(001)Cr Magnetic Superlattices

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              Quantum Computation with Quantum Dots

              We propose a new implementation of a universal set of one- and two-qubit gates for quantum computation using the spin states of coupled single-electron quantum dots. Desired operations are effected by the gating of the tunneling barrier between neighboring dots. Several measures of the gate quality are computed within a newly derived spin master equation incorporating decoherence caused by a prototypical magnetic environment. Dot-array experiments which would provide an initial demonstration of the desired non-equilibrium spin dynamics are proposed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                21 May 2004
                Article
                10.1103/RevModPhys.76.323
                cond-mat/0405528
                Custom metadata
                Rev. Mod. Phys. 76, 323-410 (2004)
                invited review, 36 figures, 900+ references; minor stylistic changes from the published version
                cond-mat.other

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