A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only effective treatment for celiac patients and assessing adherence to this diet is important. Celiac disease Adherence Test (CDAT) is a valid English-language questionnaire that is used for assessing the adherence to the GFD. In the present study, we aimed to translate the CDAT questionnaire in Persian and evaluate its validity and reliability.
In the present cross-sectional study, CDAT was translated and back-translated by three bilingual professional translators. Content validity was evaluated by 12 gastroenterologists and nutritionists. To assess the construct validity, 230 patients with celiac disease were randomly selected from the national celiac disease registry database. Internal consistency of the items and test-retest reliability were assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). To assess the convergent validity of the questionnaire, the correlation coefficient between the CDAT score and anti-tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A (anti-t-TG-IgA) titer was assessed.
The content validity index, content validity ratio, and impact score of the Persian version of CDAT (Pv-CDAT) were 0.97, 0.95, and 4.61 respectively. Three significant factors were extracted and according to the confirmatory factor analysis the three-factor model had adequate fitness (chi-square p-value of 0.74, root mean error of approximation: 0.001 [95% CI: 0.001–0.083], comparative fit index: 1, standardized root mean squared residual: 0.04, and coefficient of determination: 0.78). The questionnaire had good feasibility with the floor effect of 3.1% and the ceiling effect of 0.4%. Moreover, it has high internal consistency (Cronbach-alpha: 0.71) and test-retest reliability (ICC: 0.78). The correlations between CDAT categories and anti-tTG-IgA categories showed a significant correlation between the two tests ( r = 0.53; P < 0.001).