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      Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the celiac disease adherence test questionnaire

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          A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only effective treatment for celiac patients and assessing adherence to this diet is important. Celiac disease Adherence Test (CDAT) is a valid English-language questionnaire that is used for assessing the adherence to the GFD. In the present study, we aimed to translate the CDAT questionnaire in Persian and evaluate its validity and reliability.


          In the present cross-sectional study, CDAT was translated and back-translated by three bilingual professional translators. Content validity was evaluated by 12 gastroenterologists and nutritionists. To assess the construct validity, 230 patients with celiac disease were randomly selected from the national celiac disease registry database. Internal consistency of the items and test-retest reliability were assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). To assess the convergent validity of the questionnaire, the correlation coefficient between the CDAT score and anti-tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A (anti-t-TG-IgA) titer was assessed.


          The content validity index, content validity ratio, and impact score of the Persian version of CDAT (Pv-CDAT) were 0.97, 0.95, and 4.61 respectively. Three significant factors were extracted and according to the confirmatory factor analysis the three-factor model had adequate fitness (chi-square p-value of 0.74, root mean error of approximation: 0.001 [95% CI: 0.001–0.083], comparative fit index: 1, standardized root mean squared residual: 0.04, and coefficient of determination: 0.78). The questionnaire had good feasibility with the floor effect of 3.1% and the ceiling effect of 0.4%. Moreover, it has high internal consistency (Cronbach-alpha: 0.71) and test-retest reliability (ICC: 0.78). The correlations between CDAT categories and anti-tTG-IgA categories showed a significant correlation between the two tests ( r = 0.53; P < 0.001).


          The results of the present study showed that the Pv-CDAT questionnaire with high validity, reliability, and internal consistency can be used for assessing adherence to the GFD in adult celiac patients in Iran.

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          Advances in celiac disease and gluten-free diet.

          Celiac disease is becoming an increasingly recognized autoimmune enteropathy caused by a permanent intolerance to gluten. Once thought to be a rare disease of childhood characterized by diarrhea, celiac disease is actually a multisystemic disorder that occurs as a result of an immune response to ingested gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Screening studies have revealed that celiac disease is most common in asymptomatic adults in the United States. Although considerable scientific progress has been made in understanding celiac disease and in preventing or curing its manifestations, a strict gluten-free diet is the only treatment for celiac disease to date. Early diagnosis and treatment, together with regular follow-up visits with a dietitian, are necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy and to prevent malnutrition while adhering to the gluten-free diet for life. The purpose of this review is to provide clinicians with current updated information about celiac disease, its diverse clinical presentation and increased prevalence, the complex pathophysiology and strong genetic predisposition to celiac disease, and its diagnosis. This review focuses in detail on the gluten-free diet and the importance of intense expert dietary counseling for all patients with celiac disease. Recent advances in the gluten-free diet include food allergen labeling as well as the US Food and Drug Administration's proposed definition of the food-labeling term gluten-free. The gluten-free diet is complex and patients need comprehensive nutrition education from a skilled dietitian.
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            Measuring beliefs about gluten free diet adherence in adult coeliac disease using the theory of planned behaviour.

            The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to elicit the salient beliefs about gluten free diet (GFD) adherence in adults with coeliac disease (CD) and to design a TPB questionnaire to predict adherence levels. This questionnaire was administered to 265 CD participants with adherence and quality of life (QOL) measures, a GFD knowledge test, and self-reported psychiatric history. Regression analyses were used to test the fit of the TPB in predicting adherence, and to determine the nature of the relationships between adherence, QOL, knowledge, and psychiatric history. The TPB combined with self-reported depression and anxiety, and QOL explained significant variance in intention (41.0%) and adherence (33.7%). Poorer dietary adherence and psychiatric history were also associated with lower QOL. Findings suggest that the TPB provides an adequate model for predicting GFD adherence in CD, and the presence of psychiatric conditions represents a potential intervention target to improve adherence and QOL.
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              A gluten-free diet score to evaluate dietary compliance in patients with coeliac disease.

              A dietary interview performed by expert personnel is considered to be the most appropriate tool to check whether patients with coeliac disease follow a strict gluten-free diet. However, we currently have no straightforward and non-subjective method for performing such a dietary interview. We therefore developed a fast questionnaire based on four simple questions with a five-level score (0-IV). To verify whether our questionnaire is an efficient tool, we applied it to 168 coeliac patients (126 females and 42 males; mean age 42.4 (SD 12.9) years) on a gluten-free diet (median 82, 25th-75th percentile 50-108, range 15-389 months). The score we obtained was compared with the persistence of both villous atrophy and endomysial antibodies while on a gluten-free diet. A comparison with survival of the patients was also performed. Patients were interviewed over the phone by non-expert personnel. The questionnaire was completed in less than 1 min. The lowest results were significantly more frequent among the patients with a persistence of both villous atrophy and positive endomysial antibodies. Death risk was also significantly correlated with the lowest score results. We conclude that our questionnaire is a reliable and simple method of verifying compliance with a gluten-free diet.

                Author and article information

                BMC Gastroenterol
                BMC Gastroenterol
                BMC Gastroenterology
                BioMed Central (London )
                29 July 2020
                29 July 2020
                : 20
                [1 ]GRID grid.412888.f, ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, Liver and gastrointestinal diseases research center, , Tabriz University of medical sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [2 ]GRID grid.412888.f, ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [3 ]GRID grid.412888.f, ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, Medical Education Research Centre, Health Management and Safety Promotion Research Institute, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [4 ]GRID grid.412888.f, ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, Student research committee, , Tabriz University of medical sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funded by: FundRef, Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences;
                Award ID: 62026
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                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                Gastroenterology & Hepatology

                persian, celiac disease, validation, cdat, adherence, gluten-free diet


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