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      Design and Evaluation of a Poly(Lactide- co-Glycolide)-Based In Situ Film-Forming System for Topical Delivery of Trolamine Salicylate

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          Abstract

          Trolamine salicylate (TS) is a topical anti-inflammatory analgesic used to treat small joint pain. The topical route is preferred over the oral one owing to gastrointestinal side effects. In this study, a poly(lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based in situ bio-adhesive film-forming system for the transdermal delivery of TS was designed and evaluated. Therefore, varying amounts (0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 25% ( w/ w)) of PLGA (EXPANSORB ® DLG 50-2A, 50-5A, 50-8A, and 75-5A), ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, poly (ethylene glycol) 400, and 1% of TS were dissolved together in acetone to form the bio-adhesive polymeric solution. In vitro drug permeation studies were performed on a vertical Franz diffusion cell and dermatomed porcine ear skin to evaluate the distinct formulations. The bio-adhesive polymeric solutions were prepared successfully and formed a thin film upon application in situ. A significantly higher amount of TS was delivered from a formulation containing 20% PLGA (45 ± 4 µg/cm 2) and compared to PLGA-free counterpart (0.6 ± 0.2 µg/cm 2). Furthermore, the addition of PLGA to the polymer film facilitated an early onset of TS delivery across dermatomed porcine skin. The optimized formulation also enhanced the delivery of TS into and across the skin.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Polymer conjugates as anticancer nanomedicines.

           Ruth Duncan (2006)
          The transfer of polymer-protein conjugates into routine clinical use, and the clinical development of polymer-anticancer-drug conjugates, both as single agents and as components of combination therapy, is establishing polymer therapeutics as one of the first classes of anticancer nanomedicines. There is growing optimism that ever more sophisticated polymer-based vectors will be a significant addition to the armoury currently used for cancer therapy.
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            Polymers for drug delivery systems.

            Polymers have played an integral role in the advancement of drug delivery technology by providing controlled release of therapeutic agents in constant doses over long periods, cyclic dosage, and tunable release of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. From early beginnings using off-the-shelf materials, the field has grown tremendously, driven in part by the innovations of chemical engineers. Modern advances in drug delivery are now predicated upon the rational design of polymers tailored for specific cargo and engineered to exert distinct biological functions. In this review, we highlight the fundamental drug delivery systems and their mathematical foundations and discuss the physiological barriers to drug delivery. We review the origins and applications of stimuli-responsive polymer systems and polymer therapeutics such as polymer-protein and polymer-drug conjugates. The latest developments in polymers capable of molecular recognition or directing intracellular delivery are surveyed to illustrate areas of research advancing the frontiers of drug delivery.
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              Current advances in research and clinical applications of PLGA-based nanotechnology.

              Co-polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanotechnology has been developed for many years and has been approved by the US FDA for the use of drug delivery, diagnostics and other applications of clinical and basic science research, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, vaccine and tissue engineering. This article presents the more recent successes of applying PLGA-based nanotechnologies and tools in these medicine-related applications. It focuses on the possible mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment effects of PLGA preparations and devices. This updated information will benefit to both new and established research scientists and clinical physicians who are interested in the development and application of PLGA nanotechnology as new therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for many diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pharmaceutics
                Pharmaceutics
                pharmaceutics
                Pharmaceutics
                MDPI
                1999-4923
                12 August 2019
                August 2019
                : 11
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Centre for Drug Delivery Research, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Mercer University, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
                [2 ]MilliporeSigma a Business of Merck KGaA, Frankfurter Strasse 250, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Banga_AK@ 123456mercer.edu ; Tel.: +678-547-6243
                Article
                pharmaceutics-11-00409
                10.3390/pharmaceutics11080409
                6723844
                31408990
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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