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      Characteristics, Treatment and Outcome of Patients with Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes and Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease: Observations from PURSUIT (Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrelin Therapy)

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          Abstract

          Background: The 6-month clinical outcome of patients with multivessel disease enrolled in PURSUIT (Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy) is described. Patients with complete angiography data were included; multivessel disease was stratified according to the treatment strategy applied early during hospitalization, i.e. medical treatment, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (balloon), PCI (stent), or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: Patients were divided into three groups according to the treatment strategy applied during the first 30 days of enrolment. Patients who did not undergo a percutaneous or surgical coronary intervention were classified as medically treated. Patients who underwent a PCI (prior to a possible CABG) were separated from those who underwent a CABG (prior to a possible PCI). The PCI group was further subdivided: patients receiving ≧1 coronary stents were separated from those in whom no stents were used. Results: The mortality rate at 30 days was 6.7, 3.9, 2.4 and 4.8% for the medical treatment, PCI (balloon), PCI (stent) and CABG groups, respectively (p value = 0.002). Differences as observed at 30 days were still present at 6-month follow-up with 11.1, 5.8, 5.5 and 6.5% mortality event rates for the aforementioned groups (p value = 0.002). The 30-day myocardial infarction (MI) rate according to the opinion of the Clinical Events Committee was lower among medically than non-medically treated patients, with the highest event rate observed in the CABG group (27.7%). Approximately half of the MIs in the PCI and CABG subgroups occurred within 48 h after the procedure. Conclusions: The observed differences in clinical outcomes are explained by an imbalance in baseline characteristics and comorbid conditions between the analyzed groups of patients.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Inhibition of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa with eptifibatide in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The PURSUIT Trial Investigators. Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy.

          (1998)
          Aggregation of platelets is the pathophysiologic basis of the acute coronary syndromes. Eptifibatide, a synthetic cyclic heptapeptide, is a selective high-affinity inhibitor of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, which is involved in platelet aggregation. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of platelet aggregation with eptifibatide would have an incremental benefit beyond that of heparin and aspirin in reducing the frequency of adverse outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes who did not have persistent ST-segment elevation. Patients who had presented with ischemic chest pain within the previous 24 hours and who had either electrocardiographic changes indicative of ischemia (but not persistent ST-segment elevation) or high serum concentrations of creatine kinase MB isoenzymes were enrolled in the study. They were randomly assigned, in a double-blind manner, to receive a bolus and infusion of either eptifibatide or placebo, in addition to standard therapy, for up to 72 hours (or up to 96 hours, if coronary intervention was performed near the end of the 72-hour period). The primary end point was a composite of death and nonfatal myocardial infarction occurring up to 30 days after the index event. A total of 10,948 patients were enrolled between November 1995 and January 1997. As compared with the placebo group, the eptifibatide group had a 1.5 percent absolute reduction in the incidence of the primary end point (14.2 percent, vs. 15.7 percent in the placebo group; P=0.04). The benefit was apparent by 96 hours and persisted through 30 days. The effect was consistent in most major subgroups except for women (odds ratios for death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, 0.8 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.7 to 0.9] in men, and 1.1 [0.9 to 1.31 in women). Bleeding was more common in the eptifibatide group, although there was no increase in the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke. Inhibition of platelet aggregation with eptifibatide reduced the incidence of the composite end point of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction in patients with acute coronary syndromes who did not have persistent ST-segment elevation.
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            Analysis and interpretation of treatment effects in subgroups of patients in randomized clinical trials.

            A key principle for interpretation of subgroup results is that quantitative interactions (differences in degree) are much more likely than qualitative interactions (differences in kind). Quantitative interactions are likely to be truly present whether or not they are apparent, whereas apparent qualitative interactions should generally be disbelieved as they have usually not been replicated consistently. Therefore, the overall trial result is usually a better guide to the direction of effect in subgroups than the apparent effect observed within a subgroup. Failure to specify prior hypotheses, to account for multiple comparisons, or to correct P values increases the chance of finding spurious subgroup effects. Conversely, inadequate sample size, classification of patients into the wrong subgroup, and low power of tests of interaction make finding true subgroup effects difficult. We recommend examining the architecture of the entire set of subgroups within a trial, analyzing similar subgroups across independent trials, and interpreting the evidence in the context of known biologic mechanisms and patient prognosis.
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              A randomized trial comparing coronary angioplasty with coronary bypass surgery. Emory Angioplasty versus Surgery Trial (EAST)

              The clinical benefit of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) as compared with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease has not been established. To determine the outcomes of these treatments in patients referred for the first time for coronary revascularization, we conducted a three-year prospective, randomized trial comparing the two procedures. Revascularization was performed by accepted methods. Follow-up clinical information was collected every six months, and coronary arteriography and thallium stress scanning were performed at one and three years. The primary end point was a composite of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, and a large ischemic defect identified on thallium scanning at three years. Secondary end points included clinical and angiographic status and the need for additional revascularization procedures. Data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Of the 5118 patients screened for the trial, 842 (16.5 percent) were eligible for enrollment, and 392 (7.7 percent) agreed to participate. A total of 194 patients were randomly assigned to the CABG group, and 198 to the PTCA group. The primary end point occurred in 27.3 percent of the CABG group and 28.8 percent of the PTCA group (P = 0.81). Death occurred in 6.2 percent of the CABG group and 7.1 percent of the PTCA group (P = 0.73 by log-rank test). At three years, the proportions of patients in the CABG group who required repeated bypass surgery (1 percent) or angioplasty (13 percent) were significantly lower than the proportions in the PTCA group (22 and 41 percent, respectively; P < 0.001). Angiographic studies at three years showed a greater degree of revascularization in the CABG group. Angina was more frequent in the PTCA group (20 percent) than in the CABG group (12 percent). We found that CABG and PTCA did not differ significantly with respect to the occurrence of the composite primary end point. Consequently, the selection of one procedure over the other should be guided by patients' preferences regarding the quality of life and the possible need for subsequent procedures.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2002
                January 2003
                21 January 2003
                : 98
                : 4
                : 195-201
                Affiliations
                aThorax Center, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; bDuke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, N.C., and cCleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
                Article
                67321 Cardiology 2002;98:195–201
                10.1159/000067321
                12566649
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 17, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Coronary Care

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