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      Exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee: a Cochrane systematic review.

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          Abstract

          To determine whether land-based therapeutic exercise is beneficial for people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in terms of reduced joint pain or improved physical function and quality of life.

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          Most cited references 53

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          Quadriceps weakness and osteoarthritis of the knee.

          The quadriceps weakness commonly associated with osteoarthritis of the knee is widely believed to result from disuse atrophy secondary to pain in the involved joint. However, quadriceps weakness may be an etiologic factor in the development of osteoarthritis. To explore the relation between lower-extremity weakness and osteoarthritis of the knee. Cross-sectional prevalence study. Population-based, with recruitment by random-digit dialing. 462 volunteers 65 years of age or older. Radiographs of the knee were graded for the presence of osteoarthritis. Knee pain and function were assessed with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, the strength of leg flexors and extensors was assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, and lower-extremity lean tissue mass was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Among participants with osteoarthritis, quadriceps weakness, but not hamstring weakness, was common. The ratio of extensor strength to body weight was approximately 20% lower in those with than in those without radiographic osteoarthritis. Notably, among women with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis, extensor weakness was present in the absence of knee pain and was seen in participants with normal lower-extremity lean mass (extensor strength, 30.1 lb-ft for those with osteoarthritis and 34.8 lb-ft for those without osteoarthritis; P < 0.001). After adjustment for body weight, age, and sex, lesser quadriceps strength remained predictive of both radiographic and symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee (odds ratio for prevalence of osteoarthritis per 10 lb-ft loss of strength, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.71 to 0.90] for radiographic osteoarthritis and 0.71 [CI, 0.51 to 0.87] for symptomatic osteoarthritis). Quadriceps weakness may be present in patients who have osteoarthritis but do not have knee pain or muscle atrophy; this suggests that the weakness may be due to muscle dysfunction. The data are consistent with the possibility that quadriceps weakness is a primary risk factor for knee pain, disability, and progression of joint damage in persons with osteoarthritis of the knee.
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            Exercise for lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review incorporating trial sequential analysis and network meta-analysis

            Objective To determine whether there is sufficient evidence to conclude that exercise interventions are more effective than no exercise control and to compare the effectiveness of different exercise interventions in relieving pain and improving function in patients with lower limb osteoarthritis. Data sources Nine electronic databases searched from inception to March 2012. Study selection Randomised controlled trials comparing exercise interventions with each other or with no exercise control for adults with knee or hip osteoarthritis. Data extraction Two reviewers evaluated eligibility and methodological quality. Main outcomes extracted were pain intensity and limitation of function. Trial sequential analysis was used to investigate reliability and conclusiveness of available evidence for exercise interventions. Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to combine both direct (within trial) and indirect (between trial) evidence on treatment effectiveness. Results 60 trials (44 knee, two hip, 14 mixed) covering 12 exercise interventions and with 8218 patients met inclusion criteria. Sequential analysis showed that as of 2002 sufficient evidence had been accrued to show significant benefit of exercise interventions over no exercise control. For pain relief, strengthening, flexibility plus strengthening, flexibility plus strengthening plus aerobic, aquatic strengthening, and aquatic strengthening plus flexibility, exercises were significantly more effective than no exercise control. A combined intervention of strengthening, flexibility, and aerobic exercise was also significantly more effective than no exercise control for improving limitation in function (standardised mean difference −0.63, 95% credible interval −1.16 to −0.10). Conclusions As of 2002 sufficient evidence had accumulated to show significant benefit of exercise over no exercise in patients with osteoarthritis, and further trials are unlikely to overturn this result. An approach combining exercises to increase strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity is likely to be most effective in the management of lower limb osteoarthritis. The evidence is largely from trials in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Protocol registration PROSPERO (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/) No CRD42012002267.
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              Clinical effectiveness of a rehabilitation program integrating exercise, self-management, and active coping strategies for chronic knee pain: A cluster randomized trial

              Objective Chronic knee pain is a major cause of disability and health care expenditure, but there are concerns about efficacy, cost, and side effects associated with usual primary care. Conservative rehabilitation may offer a safe, effective, affordable alternative. We compared the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program integrating exercise, self-management, and active coping strategies (Enabling Self-management and Coping with Arthritic Knee Pain through Exercise [ESCAPE-knee pain]) with usual primary care in improving functioning in persons with chronic knee pain. Methods We conducted a single-blind, pragmatic, cluster randomized controlled trial. Participants age ≥50 years, reporting knee pain for >6 months, were recruited from 54 inner-city primary care practices. Primary care practices were randomized to continued usual primary care (i.e., whatever intervention a participant's primary care physician deemed appropriate), usual primary care plus the rehabilitation program delivered to individual participants, or usual primary care plus the rehabilitation program delivered to groups of 8 participants. The primary outcome was self-reported functioning (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical functioning [WOMAC-func]) 6 months after completing rehabilitation. Results A total of 418 participants were recruited; 76 (18%) withdrew, only 5 (1%) due to adverse events. Rehabilitated participants had better functioning than participants continuing usual primary care (−3.33 difference in WOMAC-func score; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] −5.88, −0.78; P = 0.01). Improvements were similar whether participants received individual rehabilitation (−3.53; 95% CI −6.52, −0.55) or group rehabilitation (−3.16; 95% CI −6.55, −0.12). Conclusion ESCAPE-knee pain provides a safe, relatively brief intervention for chronic knee pain that is equally effective whether delivered to individuals or groups of participants.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Br J Sports Med
                British journal of sports medicine
                BMJ
                1473-0480
                0306-3674
                Dec 2015
                : 49
                : 24
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Faculty of Health Sciences, Clinical and Rehabilitation Sciences Research Group and Discipline of Physiotherapy, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
                [2 ] Department of Medicine, St Joseph's Health Care Centre, Toronto, Canada.
                [3 ] Department of Rehabilitation, Reade, Centre for Rehabilitation and Rheumatology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
                [4 ] Department of Physiotherapy, Melbourne School of Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
                Article
                bjsports-2015-095424
                10.1136/bjsports-2015-095424
                26405113

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