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      Factors associated with health-related quality of life in renal transplant recipients: results of a national survey in France

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          This study aims to identify factors associated with health related quality of life (HRQOL) through a comprehensive analysis of sociodemographic and clinical variables among a representative sample size of renal transplant recipients (RTR) in France.


          A cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out in 2008. All RTR over 18 years old with a functioning graft for at least one year were included. Data included socio-demographic, health status, and treatment characteristics. To evaluate HRQOL, the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) and a HRQOL instrument for RTR (ReTransQol) were administered. Multivariate linear regression models were performed.


          A total of 1061 RTR were included, with a return rate of 72.5%. The variance explained in regression models of SF-36 ranges from 20% to 40% and from 9% to 33% for ReTransQol.

          The variables which decreased scores of both HRQOL questionnaires were: females, unemployment, lower education, living alone, high BMI, diabetes, recent critical illness and hospitalization, non-compliance, a long duration of dialysis and treatment side effects.

          Specific variables which decreased ReTransQol scores were dismissal and a recent surgery on the graft. These which decreased SF36 scores were being old and a recent infectious disease.

          The variables the most predictors of worse HRQOL were: side effects, infectious disease, recent hospitalization and female gender.


          The originality of our study’s findings was that novel variables, particularly treatment side effects and unemployment, have a negative effect on quality of life of RTR. The French Biomedicine Agency and the National Health Institute for Public Health Surveillance conduct specific actions for professional reintegration and therapeutic education programs in the national plan to improve the HRQOL of people living with chronic diseases.

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          Most cited references 51

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          The renal epidemiology and information network (REIN): a new registry for end-stage renal disease in France.

          The French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry began in 2002 to provide a tool for public health decision support, evaluation and research related to renal replacement therapies (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It relies on a network of nephrologists, epidemiologists, patients and public health representatives, coordinated regionally and nationally. Continuous registration covers all dialysis and transplanted patients. In 2003, 2070 patients started RRT, 7854 were on dialysis and 7294 lived with a functioning graft in seven regions (with a population of 16.5 million people). The overall crude annual incidence rate of RRT for ESRD was 123 per million population (p.m.p.) with significant differences in age-adjusted rates across regions, from 84 [95% confidence interval (CI): 74-94] to 155 [138-172] p.m.p. The principal causes of ESRD were hypertension (21%) and diabetic (20%) nephropathies. Initial treatment for ESRD was peritoneal dialysis for 15% of patients and a pre-emptive graft for 3%. The one-year survival rate was 81% [79-83] in the cohort of 2002-2003 incident patients. As of December 31, 2003, the overall crude prevalence was 898 [884-913] p.m.p, with 5% of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis, 47% on haemodialysis and 48% with a functioning graft. The experience in these seven regions over these two years clearly shows the feasibility of the REIN registry, which is progressively expanding to cover the entire country.
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            Incidence, determinants, and consequences of subclinical noncompliance with immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplant recipients.

            In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we investigated the incidence, determinants, and consequences of subclinical noncompliance with immunosuppressive therapy in 150 adult renal transplant recipients with more than one year posttransplant status. Symptom frequency and symptom distress, and self-care agency were measured by the Transplant Symptom Frequency and Symptom Distress Scale, and the Appraisal for Self-Care Agency Scale, respectively. The Long-Term Medication Behavior Self-Efficacy Scale and a renal transplant knowledge questionnaire were developed as part of this study to measure perceived self-efficacy and knowledge of the therapeutic regimen. Demographic variables were also measured. The incidence of subclinical noncompliance with immunosuppressive therapy as assessed by interview was 22.3%. Compliers and noncompliers differed significantly on the variables of marital status (P = 0.03), situational-operational knowledge (P = 0.02), self-care agency (P = 0.03), and perceived self-efficacy related to long-term medication intake (P = 0.048). A logistic regression model using gender, marital status, perceived self-efficacy, self-care agency, knowledge about medication administration and signs of infection, and situational operational knowledge as predictor variables, revealed a 78.6% correct classification of compliers versus noncompliers and a sensitivity ratio of 95.9%. There were significantly more acute late rejection episodes (P = 0.003) in the noncompliant group. Graft survival at 5 years in this group was also significantly lower (P = 0.03) than the compliant patients. No significant difference was found in terms of the occurrence of chronic rejection episodes or in terms of patient survival at 5 years. Because noncompliance is a risk factor for negative clinical outcome in renal transplant recipients, it is of utmost importance to develop intervention strategies to enhance compliance in this population by using determinants identified in exploratory studies.
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              Changes in quality of life after renal transplantation.

              The objective of this study was to evaluate the modifications that renal transplantation produces on the quality of life (QOL) of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) previously undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and to analyze the possible factors implicated. A multicenter study of QOL was performed on 1,023 patients undergoing dialysis, using as QOL indicators the Karnofsky Scale (KS) and the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP). Among this group, 93 patients received a renal transplant and QOL was re-studied in them; each subject, therefore, was his own control. In the 88 patients with a functioning graft, an improvement in QOL indices was globally observed; this improvement was much more marked in men than in women, for unclear reasons. Older age and greater prior comorbidity diminished the beneficial effects of transplantation.

                Author and article information

                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
                BioMed Central
                30 May 2013
                : 11
                : 88
                [1 ]Laboratoire de Santé Publique, Faculté de Médecine, Université Aix-Marseille, Marseille EA 3279, France
                [2 ]Service Santé Publique et Information Médicale, CHU Marseille, Marseille, France
                [3 ]Centre de Néphrologie et de Transplantation Rénale, CHU Marseille, Marseille, France
                [4 ]Agence de la Biomédecine, Paris, France
                [5 ]Epidémiologie et Evaluation Cliniques, CHU Nancy, Nancy, France
                [6 ]Université de Lorraine, Université Paris Descartes, Apemac, Nancy EA 4360, France
                Copyright © 2013 Gentile et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



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