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      Digital games in medical education: Key terms, concepts, and definitions

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          Introduction: Game-based education is fast becoming a key instrument in medical education.

          Method: In this study, papers related to games were filtered and limited to full-text peer-reviewed published in English.

          Results: To the best of researchers’ knowledge, the concepts used in the literature are varied and distinct, and the literature is not conclusive on the definition of educational games for medical education.

          Conclusion: This paper attempts to classify terms, concepts and definitions common to gamification in medical education.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Mobile Medical Education (MoMEd) - how mobile information resources contribute to learning for undergraduate clinical students - a mixed methods study

          Background Mobile technology is increasingly being used by clinicians to access up-to-date information for patient care. These offer learning opportunities in the clinical setting for medical students but the underlying pedagogic theories are not clear. A conceptual framework is needed to understand these further. Our initial questions were how the medical students used the technology, how it enabled them to learn and what theoretical underpinning supported the learning. Methods 387 medical students were provided with a personal digital assistant (PDA) loaded with medical resources for the duration of their clinical studies. Outcomes were assessed by a mixed-methods triangulation approach using qualitative and quantitative analysis of surveys, focus groups and usage tracking data. Results Learning occurred in context with timely access to key facts and through consolidation of knowledge via repetition. The PDA was an important addition to the learning ecology rather than a replacement. Contextual factors impacted on use both positively and negatively. Barriers included concerns of interrupting the clinical interaction and of negative responses from teachers and patients. Students preferred a future involving smartphone platforms. Conclusions This is the first study to describe the learning ecology and pedagogic basis behind the use of mobile learning technologies in a large cohort of undergraduate medical students in the clinical environment. We have developed a model for mobile learning in the clinical setting that shows how different theories contribute to its use taking into account positive and negative contextual factors. The lessons from this study are transferable internationally, to other health care professions and to the development of similar initiatives with newer technology such as smartphones or tablet computers.
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            Gamification as a tool for enhancing graduate medical education

            Introduction The last decade has seen many changes in graduate medical education training in the USA, most notably the implementation of duty hour standards for residents by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education. As educators are left to balance more limited time available between patient care and resident education, new methods to augment traditional graduate medical education are needed. Objectives To assess acceptance and use of a novel gamification-based medical knowledge software among internal medicine residents and to determine retention of information presented to participants by this medical knowledge software. Methods We designed and developed software using principles of gamification to deliver a web-based medical knowledge competition among internal medicine residents at the University of Alabama (UA) at Birmingham and UA at Huntsville in 2012–2013. Residents participated individually and in teams. Participants accessed daily questions and tracked their online leaderboard competition scores through any internet-enabled device. We completed focus groups to assess participant acceptance and analysed software use, retention of knowledge and factors associated with loss of participants (attrition). Results Acceptance: In focus groups, residents (n=17) reported leaderboards were the most important motivator of participation. Use: 16 427 questions were completed: 28.8% on Saturdays/Sundays, 53.1% between 17:00 and 08:00. Retention of knowledge: 1046 paired responses (for repeated questions) were collected. Correct responses increased by 11.9% (p<0.0001) on retest. Differences per time since question introduction, trainee level and style of play were observed. Attrition: In ordinal regression analyses, completing more questions (0.80 per 10% increase; 0.70 to 0.93) decreased, while postgraduate year 3 class (4.25; 1.44 to 12.55) and non-daily play (4.51; 1.50 to 13.58) increased odds of attrition. Conclusions Our software-enabled, gamification-based educational intervention was well accepted among our millennial learners. Coupling software with gamification and analysis of trainee use and engagement data can be used to develop strategies to augment learning in time-constrained educational settings.
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              What is the Net Generation? The challenge for future medical education.

              The Net Generation is the cohort of young people born between 1982 and 1991 who have grown up in an environment in which they are constantly exposed to computer-based technology. It has been suggested that their methods of learning are different from those of previous generations. In a survey of first-year undergraduate students, we found that a large majority started university with experience of using online systems such as blogs and wikis; furthermore, their attitudes to the possible use of such tools in learning were positive. The Net Generation is a challenge to the way that all universities and medical schools provide teaching and learning. We suggest that all educators of this group of students need to be aware of incoming students' skills and experience and do more to promote their use in the undergraduate curriculum.

                Author and article information

                Med J Islam Repub Iran
                Med J Islam Repub Iran
                Med J Islam Repub Iran
                Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
                Iran University of Medical Sciences
                02 September 2017
                : 31
                : 52
                1 Center for Educational Research in Medical Education (CERMS), Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.
                2 Faculty of Education, Simon Fraser University (SFU), Vancouver, BC, Canada.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Dr Shoaleh Bigdeli, sbigdeli@
                © 2017 Iran University of Medical Sciences

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 3.0 License (CC BY-NC 3.0), which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 43, Pages: 7
                Original Article

                medical education, simulation game, game


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