There have concerns related with the potential harms of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). We aimed to summarize the clinical complications and evaluate the safety of FNAB.
Studies related with the harms of FNAB were searched on MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane library, and KoreaMed from 2012 to 2022. Also, studies reviewed in the previous systematic reviews were evaluated. Included clinical complications were postprocedural pain, bleeding events, neurological symptoms, tracheal puncture, infections, post-FNAB thyrotoxicosis, and needle tract implantation of thyroid cancers.
Twenty-three cohort studies were included in this review. Nine studies which were related with FNAB-related pain showed that most of the subjects had no or mild discomfort. The 0% to 6.4% of the patients had hematoma or hemorrhage after FNAB, according to 15 studies. Vasovagal reaction, vocal cord palsy, and tracheal puncture have rarely described in the included studies. Needle tract implantation of thyroid malignancies was described in three studies reporting 0.02% to 0.19% of the incidence rate.