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      Comparison of marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and intermediate restorative material as root-end filling materials, using scanning electron microscope: An in vitro study


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          The present study compares the marginal adaption of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) as root-end filling materials in extracted human teeth using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

          Materials and Methods:

          Thirty single rooted human teeth were obturated with Gutta-percha after cleaning and shaping. Apical 3 mm of roots were resected and retrofilled with MTA, GIC and IRM. One millimeter transverse section of the retrofilled area was used to study the marginal adaptation of the restorative material with the dentin. Mounted specimens were examined using SEM at approximately 15 Kv and 10 -6 Torr under high vacuum condition. At 2000 X magnification, the gap size at the material-tooth interface was recorded at 2 points in microns.

          Statistical Analysis:

          One way ANOVA Analysis of the data from the experimental group was carried out with gap size as the dependent variable, and material as independent variable.


          The lowest mean value of gap size was recorded in MTA group (0.722 ± 0.438 μm) and the largest mean gap in GIC group (1.778 ± 0.697 μm).


          MTA showed least gap size when compared to IRM and GIC suggesting a better marginal adaptation.

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          Most cited references29

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          Clinical applications of mineral trioxide aggregate.

          An experimental material, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), has recently been investigated as a potential alternative restorative material to the presently used materials in endodontics. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that MTA prevents microleakage, is biocompatible, and promotes regeneration of the original tissues when it is placed in contact with the dental pulp or periradicular tissues. This article describes the clinical procedures for application of MTA in capping of pulps with reversible pulpitis, apexification, repair of root perforations nonsurgically and surgically, as well as its use as a root-end filling material.
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            Mineral trioxide aggregate: a comprehensive literature review--part II: leakage and biocompatibility investigations.

            Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed because existing materials did not have the ideal characteristics for orthograde or retrograde root-end fillings. MTA has been recommended primarily as a root-end filling material, but it has also been used in pulp capping, pulpotomy, apical barrier formation in teeth with open apexes, repair of root perforations, and root canal filling. Part I of this literature review presented a comprehensive list of articles regarding the chemical and physical properties as well as the antibacterial activity of MTA. The purpose of part II of this review is to present a comprehensive list of articles regarding the sealing ability and biocompatibility of this material. A review of the literature was performed by using electronic and hand-searching methods for the sealing ability and biocompatibility of MTA from November 1993-September 2009. Numerous studies have investigated the sealing ability and biocompatibility of MTA. On the basis of available evidence it appears that MTA seals well and is a biocompatible material. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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              Bacterial leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate as a root-end filling material.

              Previous dye leakage studies have shown that mineral trioxide aggregate leaks significantly less than other commonly used root-end filling materials. This study determined the time needed for Staphylococcus epidermidis to penetrate a 3-mm thickness of amalgam, Super-EBA, Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as root-end filling materials. Fifty-six single-rooted extracted human teeth were cleaned and shaped using a step-back technique. Following root-end resection, 48 root-end cavities were filled with amalgam, Super-EBA, IRM, or MTA. Four root-end cavities were filled with thermoplasticized gutta-percha without a root canal sealer (+ control), and another four were filled with sticky wax covered with two layers of nail polish (- control). After attaching the teeth to plastic caps of 12-ml plastic vials and placing the root ends into phenol red broth, the set-ups were sterilized overnight with ethylene dioxide gas. A tenth of a microliter of broth containing S. epidermidis was placed into the root canal of 46 teeth (40 experimental, 3 positive, and 3 negative control groups). In addition, the root canals of two teeth with test root-end filling materials and one tooth from the positive and negative control groups were filled with sterile saline. The number of days required for the test bacteria to penetrate various root-end filling materials was determined. Most samples whose apical 3 mm were filled with amalgam, Super-EBA, or IRM began leaking at 6 to 57 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

                Author and article information

                J Conserv Dent
                J Conserv Dent
                Journal of Conservative Dentistry : JCD
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Nov-Dec 2014
                : 17
                : 6
                : 566-570
                [1]Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Narayana Dental College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
                [1 ]Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Sri Sai College of Dental Surgery, Vikarabad, Telangana, India
                [2 ]Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Sri Venkata Sai Institute of Dental Sciences, Mahabubnagar, Telangana, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Sirisha Gundam, D/O Dr. G. Chandra Shekara Reddy, Flat No - 105, 3-6 - 290/B, Sai Tirumala Towers, Near St Pauls School, Hyderguda, Hyderabad - 500 029, Telangana, India. E-mail: drsirishareddy22@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright: © Journal of Conservative Dentistry

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 24 June 2014
                : 28 August 2014
                : 18 September 2014
                Original Article

                glass ionomer cement aggregate,intermediate restorative material,mineral trioxide,root-end filling,scanning electron microscope


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