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      Prevalence of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases among rural women in Yemen

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      Family Medicine and Community Health

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      Noncommunicable diseases, risk factors, prevalence, Yemen

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          Abstract

          Objective: The objective of this study was to expand the evidence base on the prevalence of risk factors for the main noncommunicable diseases (such as diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and obesity) among rural women in Yemen.

          Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 450 rural women in the age range from 18 to 60 years who presented in the targeted health centers of Sana’a and Al-Mahweet governorates during the time of the study. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire developed as per World Health Organization STEPS guidelines. Body mass index, blood pressure, and biochemical measurements of fasting blood glucose were recorded.

          Results: Ninety-four percent of the respondents were physically inactive. Only 3.5% of respondents were smokers, while 66.3% were qat chewers. Forty-seven percent watched TV. Thirty-nine percent of respondents ate vegetables daily, while 19.5% consumed fruits daily. Among the respondents, 31.3% were obese, 15.0% were hypertensive, and 7.8% had diabetes mellitus. Age group, marital status, and education level were significantly associated with obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus. There were significant associations between obesity and blood pressure, as well as between blood pressure and diabetes mellitus.

          Conclusion: Frequent campaigns and educational programs are to be encouraged for the adoption of healthy lifestyle practices and health promotion.

          Significance statement: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) morbidity and death are increasing rapidly, particularly among developing countries, including Yemen. Information on risk factors predicts the future burden of diseases. The results of this study will complement the limited knowledge of the existing interactions between sociodemographic characteristics, behavior, and noncommunicable diseases among rural women in Yemen. It will also be a fundamental starting point for health planning and execution of health promotion interventions.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Physical activity and all-cause mortality: an updated meta-analysis with different intensity categories.

          In a meta-analysis we investigated the effect of physical activity with different intensity categories on all-cause mortality. Many studies have reported positive effects of regular physical activity on primary prevention. This recent meta-analysis analyzed all-cause mortality with special reference to intensity categories. A computerized systematic literature search was performed in EMBASE, PUBMED, and MEDLINE data bases (1990-2006) for prospective cohort studies on physical leisure activity. Thirty-eight studies were identified and evaluated. The presentation refers to studies with 3 or 4 different intensities of regular physical activity according to a standard questionnaire. There was a significant association of lower all-cause mortality for active individuals compared with sedentary persons. For studies with three activity categories (mildly, moderately, and highly active) and multivariate-adjusted models, highly active men had a 22% lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.84) compared to mildly active men. For women, the relative risk was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.90). We observed similar results in moderately active persons compared to mildly active individuals (RR=0.81 for men and RR=0.76 for women). This association of activity to all-cause mortality was similar and significant in older subjects. Regular physical activity over longer time is strongly associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality in active subjects compared to sedentary persons. There is a dose-response curve especially from sedentary subjects to those with mild and moderate exercise with only a minor additional reduction with further increase in activity level.
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            Common risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases among older adults in China, Ghana, Mexico, India, Russia and South Africa: the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) wave 1

            Background Behavioral risk factors such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity and the harmful use of alcohol are known and modifiable contributors to a number of NCDs and health mediators. The purpose of this paper is to describe the distribution of main risk factors for NCDs by socioeconomic status (SES) among adults aged 50 years and older within a country and compare these risk factors across six lower- and upper-middle income countries. Methods The study population in this paper draw from SAGE Wave 1 and consisted of adults aged 50-plus from China (N=13,157), Ghana (N=4,305), India (N=6,560), Mexico (N=2,318), the Russian Federation (N=3,938) and South Africa (N=3,836). Seven main common risk factors for NCDs were identified: daily tobacco use, frequent heavy drinking, low level physical activity, insufficient vegetable and fruit intake, high risk waist-hip ratio, obesity and hypertension. Multiple risk factors were also calculated by summing all these risk factors. Results The prevalence of daily tobacco use ranged from 7.7% (Ghana) to 46.9% (India), frequent heavy drinker was the highest in China (6.3%) and lowest in India (0.2%), and the highest prevalence of low physical activity was in South Africa (59.7%). The highest prevalence of respondents with high waist-to-hip ratio risk was 84.5% in Mexico, and the prevalence of self-reported hypertension ranging from 33% (India) to 78% (South Africa). Obesity was more common in South Africa, the Russia Federation and Mexico (45.2%, 36% and 28.6%, respectively) compared with China, India and Ghana (15.3%, 9.7% and 6.4%, respectively). China, Ghana and India had a higher prevalence of respondents with multiple risk factors than Mexico, the Russia Federation and South Africa. The occurrence of three and four risk factors was more prevalent in Mexico, the Russia Federation and South Africa. Conclusion There were substantial variations across countries and settings, even between upper-middle income countries and lower-middle income countries. The baseline information on the magnitude of the problem of risk factors provided by this study can help countries and health policymakers to set up interventions addressing the global non-communicable disease epidemic.
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              Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

              This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs) and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus on promotion of healthy eating and physical activity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                FMCH
                Family Medicine and Community Health
                FMCH
                Compuscript (Ireland )
                2009-8774
                2305-6983
                May 2018
                May 2018
                : 6
                : 2
                : 51-62
                Affiliations
                1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sana’a Community College, Sana’a, Yemen
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Gawad M.A. Alwabr, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sana’a Community College, Sana’a, Yemen, E-mail: alwabr2000@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                FMCH.2018.0105
                10.15212/FMCH.2018.0105
                Copyright © 2018 Family Medicine and Community Health

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                Product
                Self URI (journal page): http://fmch-journal.org/
                Funding
                This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
                Categories
                Original Research

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