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      Controllable fabrication of multi‐modal porous PLGA scaffolds with different sizes of SPIONs using supercritical CO 2 foaming

      1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 2 , 3 , 2 , 3 , 4
      Journal of Applied Polymer Science
      Wiley

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          Abstract

          Multi‐modal porous scaffolds can promote bone regeneration. In the present study, they were successfully fabricated from poly (lactic‐co‐glycolic acid) (PLGA)/superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) by supercritical CO 2 foaming, where SPIONs was employed as heterogeneous nucleation agent. The effects of SPION size on pore nucleation in PLGA/SPIONs nanocomposites were investigated. It was found that the addition of smaller SPIONs size caused the reduction of pore size. Multi‐modal porous scaffolds could be available by controlling the SPIONs content, soaking temperature, pressure, and depressurization rate. The porosity of the PLGA/SPIONs scaffolds ranged from (58.68 ± 0.62)% to (94.97 ± 0.14)% could be obtained via adjusting the supercritical CO 2 foaming conditions. Moreover, it was found that the compressive modulus and porosity of the scaffolds were strongly associated with the porous structure. This study provided a new green preparation method for magnetic scaffolds to realize the controllable adjustment of the multi‐mode porous scaffolds.

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          Porous scaffold design for tissue engineering.

          A paradigm shift is taking place in medicine from using synthetic implants and tissue grafts to a tissue engineering approach that uses degradable porous material scaffolds integrated with biological cells or molecules to regenerate tissues. This new paradigm requires scaffolds that balance temporary mechanical function with mass transport to aid biological delivery and tissue regeneration. Little is known quantitatively about this balance as early scaffolds were not fabricated with precise porous architecture. Recent advances in both computational topology design (CTD) and solid free-form fabrication (SFF) have made it possible to create scaffolds with controlled architecture. This paper reviews the integration of CTD with SFF to build designer tissue-engineering scaffolds. It also details the mechanical properties and tissue regeneration achieved using designer scaffolds. Finally, future directions are suggested for using designer scaffolds with in vivo experimentation to optimize tissue-engineering treatments, and coupling designer scaffolds with cell printing to create designer material/biofactor hybrids.
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            Bone tissue engineering: state of the art and future trends.

            Although several major progresses have been introduced in the field of bone regenerative medicine during the years, current therapies, such as bone grafts, still have many limitations. Moreover, and in spite of the fact that material science technology has resulted in clear improvements in the field of bone substitution medicine, no adequate bone substitute has been developed and hence large bone defects/injuries still represent a major challenge for orthopaedic and reconstructive surgeons. It is in this context that TE has been emerging as a valid approach to the current therapies for bone regeneration/substitution. In contrast to classic biomaterial approach, TE is based on the understanding of tissue formation and regeneration, and aims to induce new functional tissues, rather than just to implant new spare parts. The present review pretends to give an exhaustive overview on all components needed for making bone tissue engineering a successful therapy. It begins by giving the reader a brief background on bone biology, followed by an exhaustive description of all the relevant components on bone TE, going from materials to scaffolds and from cells to tissue engineering strategies, that will lead to "engineered" bone. Scaffolds processed by using a methodology based on extrusion with blowing agents.
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              Development of biocompatible synthetic extracellular matrices for tissue engineering.

              Tissue engineering may provide an alternative to organ and tissue transplantation, both of which suffer from a limitation of supply. Cell transplantation using biodegradable synthetic extracellular matrices offers the possibility of creating completely natural new tissues and so replacing lost or malfunctioning organs or tissues. Synthetic extracellular matrices fabricated from biocompatible, biodegradable polymers play an important role in the formation of functional new tissue from transplanted cells. They provide a temporary scaffolding to guide new tissue growth and organization, and may provide specific signals intended to retain tissue-specific gene expression.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Journal of Applied Polymer Science
                J of Applied Polymer Sci
                Wiley
                0021-8995
                1097-4628
                June 15 2022
                February 25 2022
                June 15 2022
                : 139
                : 23
                Affiliations
                [1 ] School of Energy and Environment Southeast University Nanjing Jiangsu China
                [2 ] Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Devices Nanjing Jiangsu China
                [3 ] Joint Research Institute of Southeast University and Monash University Southeast University Suzhou Jiangsu China
                [4 ] School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Southeast University Nanjing Jiangsu China
                Article
                10.1002/app.52287
                cc845a8e-35be-4f9d-876c-f90eef431a6c
                © 2022

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