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      Boundary element computations in the forward and inverse problems of electrocardiography: comparison of collocation and Galerkin weightings.

      IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering

      Models, Cardiovascular, Humans, physiology, Heart Conduction System, methods, Electrocardiography, Computer Simulation, Body Surface Potential Mapping, Animals, Action Potentials

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          In electrocardiographic imaging, epicardial potentials are reconstructed computationally from electrocardiographic measurements. The reconstruction is typically done with the help of the boundary element method (BEM), using the point collocation weighting and constant or linear basis functions. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of constant and linear point collocation and Galerkin BEMs in the epicardial potential problem. The integral equations and discretizations were formulated in terms of the single- and double-layer operators. All inner element integrals were calculated analytically. The computational methods were validated against analytical solutions in a simplified geometry. On the basis of the validation, no method was optimal in all testing scenarios. In the forward computation of the epicardial potential, the linear Galerkin (LG) method produced the smallest errors. The LG method also produced the smallest discretization error on the epicardial surface. In the inverse computation of epicardial potential, the electrode-specific transfer matrix performed better than the full transfer matrix. The Tikhonov 2 regularization outperformed the Tikhonov 0. In the optimal modeling conditions, the best BEM technique depended on electrode positions and chosen error measure. When large modeling errors such as omission of the lungs were present, the choice of the basis and weighting functions was not significant.

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