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      Renal Functional Deterioration Is Not Affected by the Magnitude of Sodium Consumption in a Normotensive Model of Moderate Renal Failure

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: High sodium consumption has been repeatedly reported to exert deleterious effects on severe chronic renal failure progression, mainly via glomerular mechanisms. However, the role of high sodium intake in renal function deterioration in a model of moderate chronic tubulointerstitial disease has not yet been addressed. We evaluated the effects of exaggerated dietary sodium and the resultant increase in proteinuria on renal function deterioration in experimental tubulointerstitial disease in rats. Methods: In 48 Sprague-Dawley rats, moderate renal failure (approximately 50% of normal glomerular filtration rate) was induced by administration of lithium chloride in drinking water. The animals were divided into three groups fed low (<0.2% Na<sup>+</sup>), normal (0.5% Na<sup>+</sup>), or high (8% Na<sup>+</sup>) sodium diets. Results: Animals in all groups remained normotensive with a similar course of GFR downslope and 100% survival, irrespective of sodium regimen. Rats consuming high sodium diets developed significantly greater proteinuria compared to their counterparts fed normal or low sodium chow. Conclusions: (1) Deterioration of renal function in a lithium-induced model of normotensive moderate chronic renal failure was not affected by dietary sodium. (2) Unlike in some other human or experimental renal failure models, the magnitude of proteinuria had no adverse effect on the progression of renal deterioration.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Management of glomerular proteinuria: a commentary.

          It is widely accepted that proteinuria reduction is an appropriate therapeutic goal in chronic proteinuric kidney disease. Based on large randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT), ACE inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy have emerged as the most important antiproteinuric and renal protective interventions. However, there are numerous other interventions that have been shown to be antiproteinuric and, therefore, likely to be renoprotective. Unfortunately testing each of these antiproteinuric therapies in RCT is not feasible. The nephrologist has two choices: restrict antiproteinuric therapies to those shown to be effective in RCT or expand the use of antiproteinuric therapies to include those that, although unproven, are plausibly effective and prudent to use. The goal of this work is to provide the documentation needed for the nephrologist to choose between these strategies. This work describes 25 separate interventions that are either antiproteinuric or may block injurious mechanisms of proteinuria. Each intervention is assigned a level of recommendation (Level 1 is the highest; Level 3 is the lowest) according to the strength of the evidence supporting its antiproteinuric and renoprotective efficacy. Pathophysiologic mechanisms possibly involved are also discussed. The number of interventions at each level of recommendation are: Level 1, n = 7; Level 2, n = 9; Level 3, n = 9. Our experience indicates that we can achieve in most patients the majority of Level 1 and many of the Level 2 and 3 recommendations. We suggest that, until better information becomes available, a broad-based, multiple-risk factor intervention to reduce proteinuria can be justified in those with progressive nephropathies. This work is intended primarily for clinical nephrologists; therefore, each antiproteinuria intervention is described in practical detail.
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            Renoprotection: one or many therapies?

            Renal disease that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) imposes a great burden on the affected individual and on society, which mainly bears the cost of ESRD (currently more than $10 billion to treat about 333,000 patients annually in the U.S.). Thus, there is a great need to identify therapies that arrest the progression mechanisms common to all forms of renal disease. Progress is being made. Perhaps the most visible advance is the randomized controlled trials (RCT) demonstrating the renoprotective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. There are also numerous other promising renoprotective therapies. Unfortunately, testing each therapy in RCT is not feasible. Thus the nephrologist has two choices: restrict renoprotective therapy to those shown to be effective in RCT, or expand the use of renoprotective therapies to include those that, although unproven, are plausibly effective and prudent to use. The goal of this work is to provide the documentation needed for the nephrologist to choose between these strategies. This work first describes the mechanisms believed to be involved in the progression of renal disease. Based largely on this information, 18 separate interventions that slow the progression are described. Each intervention is assigned a level of recommendation (Level 1 is the highest and Level 3 the lowest) according to the strength of evidence supporting its renoprotective efficacy. The number of interventions at each level of recommendation are: Level 1, N = 4; Level 2, N = 4; Level 3, N = 10. Our own experience with the multiple-risk-factor intervention is that most patients can achieve the majority of the Level 1 and 2 interventions, and many of the Level 3 interventions. We recommend the expanded renoprotection strategy. This work advances the hypothesis that, until better information becomes available, a broad-based, multiple-risk-factor intervention intended to slow the progression of renal disease can be justified in those with progressive nephropathies. This work is intended primarily for clinical nephrologists and thus each recommended intervention is described in substantial practical detail.
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              Renal insufficiency in long-term lithium treatment.

              To compare long-term lithium patients who developed renal insufficiency (RI) with those who did not, and to examine what characterized these groups. One hundred fourteen subjects with DSM-IV bipolar, major depressive, or schizoaffective disorder who had been taking lithium for 4 to 30 years from 1968 to 2000 were studied retrospectively. Subjects with blood creatinine levels > or = 1.5 mg/dL were defined as RI patients, and creatinine levels < 1.5 mg/dL indicated no renal insufficiency (NRI). Ninety-four unmedicated subjects, matched for sex and age, served as a comparison group and had 2 measures of creatinine with a mean interval of 11.88 years. Twenty-four (21%) of the lithium-treated patients were defined as RI patients. These subjects exhibited the "creeping creatinine" phenomenon as their creatinine levels increased progressively. The NRI subjects showed no increase of creatinine levels in up to 30 years and remained comparable to the comparison group. RI was associated with episodes of lithium intoxication and diseases or medicines that could affect glomerular function, but not with sex, psychiatric diagnosis, age at onset of diagnosed disorder, duration of lithium therapy, serum lithium concentration, and cumulative lithium dose. Long-term lithium therapy did not influence glomerular function in an overwhelming majority of patients. However, about 20% of long-term lithium patients exhibited "creeping creatinine" and developed renal insufficiency.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2005
                December 2005
                30 September 2005
                : 25
                : 6
                : 541-547
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, bDepartment of Internal Medicine A, and cDepartment of Internal Medicine F, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel
                Article
                88673 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:541–547
                10.1159/000088673
                16205053
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 33, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/88673
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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