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      Sex differences in the antagonism of swim stress-induced analgesia: effects of gonadectomy and estrogen replacement :

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          Most cited references 62

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          Surgery in the rat during electrical analgesia induced by focal brain stimulation.

           John Reynolds (1969)
          Chronic monopolar electrodes were implanted in the region of the midbrain central gray in eight rats. In three rats, continuous 60 cycle-per-second sine-wave stimulation resulted in an electrical analgesia defined by the elimination of responses to aversive stimulation while general motor responsiveness was retained. Exploratory laparotomy was carried out in these animals during continuous brain stimulation without the use of chemical anesthetics. Following surgery, brain stimulation was terminated, and responses to aversive stimuli returned. Electrodes effective in inducing electrical analgesia at the lowest currents were located at the dorsolateral perimeter of the midbrain central gray. It was concluded that focal brain stimulation in this region can induce analgesia in the absence of diffusely applied "whole brain" stimulation.
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            Atlas of estradiol-concentrating cells in the central nervous system of the female rat.

             D Pfaff,  M Keiner (1973)
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              Evolutionary and comparative aspects of nociception.

              The ability to detect and respond to aversive environmental stimuli is a basic feature of animals that is expressed in the term 'nociception.' Nociception and nociceptive responses provide an index of the sensitivity of individuals to aversive physical stimuli. Measurements of alterations in nociceptive responses (antinociception and analgesia) are commonly used to monitor the behavioral and physiological status of animals following experimental manipulation that usually, but not always, involve exposure to either noxious, stressful or potentially stressful physical and/or biological stimuli. This review briefly considers: i) the phylogenetic development of nociceptive responses and behaviors ii) evolutionary and comparative patterns of the neuromodulation of nociceptive behaviors by opioid peptides and other nonopioid peptidal regulatory mechanisms; iii) the effects of various biological variables, including; age, development, sex, and temporal factors (biological rhythms) on nociception in rodents.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pain
                Pain
                Elsevier BV
                0304-3959
                1993
                April 1993
                : 53
                : 1
                : 17-25
                Article
                10.1016/0304-3959(93)90050-Y
                © 1993

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