5
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Intruders below the Radar: Molecular Pathogenesis of Bartonella spp.

      ,

      Clinical Microbiology Reviews

      American Society for Microbiology

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that employ a unique stealth infection strategy comprising immune evasion and modulation, intimate interaction with nucleated cells, and intraerythrocytic persistence. Infections with Bartonella are ubiquitous among mammals, and many species can infect humans either as their natural host or incidentally as zoonotic pathogens. Upon inoculation into a naive host, the bartonellae first colonize a primary niche that is widely accepted to involve the manipulation of nucleated host cells, e.g., in the microvasculature. Consistently, in vitro research showed that Bartonella harbors an ample arsenal of virulence factors to modulate the response of such cells, gain entrance, and establish an intracellular niche. Subsequently, the bacteria are seeded into the bloodstream where they invade erythrocytes and give rise to a typically asymptomatic intraerythrocytic bacteremia. While this course of infection is characteristic for natural hosts, zoonotic infections or the infection of immunocompromised patients may alter the path of Bartonella and result in considerable morbidity. In this review we compile current knowledge on the molecular processes underlying both the infection strategy and pathogenesis of Bartonella and discuss their connection to the clinical presentation of human patients, which ranges from minor complaints to life-threatening disease.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 453

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Integrins in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.

          Blood vessels promote tumour growth, and both blood and lymphatic vessels facilitate tumour metastasis by serving as conduits for the transport of tumour cells to new sites. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are regulated by integrins, which are members of a family of cell surface receptors whose ligands are extracellular matrix proteins and immunoglobulin superfamily molecules. Select integrins promote endothelial cell migration and survival during angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, whereas other integrins promote pro-angiogenic macrophage trafficking to tumours. Several integrin-targeted therapeutic agents are currently in clinical trials for cancer therapy. Here, we review the evidence implicating integrins as a family of fundamental regulators of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens.

            Multicellular organisms possess very sophisticated defense mechanisms that are designed to effectively counter the continual microbial insult of the environment within the vertebrate host. However, successful microbial pathogens have in turn evolved complex and efficient methods to overcome innate and adaptive immune mechanisms, which can result in disease or chronic infections. Although the various virulence strategies used by viral and bacterial pathogens are numerous, there are several general mechanisms that are used to subvert and exploit immune systems that are shared between these diverse microbial pathogens. The success of each pathogen is directly dependant on its ability to mount an effective anti-immune response within the infected host, which can ultimately result in acute disease, chronic infection, or pathogen clearance. In this review, we highlight and compare some of the many molecular mechanisms that bacterial and viral pathogens use to evade host immune defenses.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Biological diversity of prokaryotic type IV secretion systems.

              Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) translocate DNA and protein substrates across prokaryotic cell envelopes generally by a mechanism requiring direct contact with a target cell. Three types of T4SS have been described: (i) conjugation systems, operationally defined as machines that translocate DNA substrates intercellularly by a contact-dependent process; (ii) effector translocator systems, functioning to deliver proteins or other macromolecules to eukaryotic target cells; and (iii) DNA release/uptake systems, which translocate DNA to or from the extracellular milieu. Studies of a few paradigmatic systems, notably the conjugation systems of plasmids F, R388, RP4, and pKM101 and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/VirD4 system, have supplied important insights into the structure, function, and mechanism of action of type IV secretion machines. Information on these systems is updated, with emphasis on recent exciting structural advances. An underappreciated feature of T4SS, most notably of the conjugation subfamily, is that they are widely distributed among many species of gram-negative and -positive bacteria, wall-less bacteria, and the Archaea. Conjugation-mediated lateral gene transfer has shaped the genomes of most if not all prokaryotes over evolutionary time and also contributed in the short term to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and other virulence traits among medically important pathogens. How have these machines adapted to function across envelopes of distantly related microorganisms? A survey of T4SS functioning in phylogenetically diverse species highlights the biological complexity of these translocation systems and identifies common mechanistic themes as well as novel adaptations for specialized purposes relating to the modulation of the donor-target cell interaction.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Microbiology Reviews
                Clinical Microbiology Reviews
                American Society for Microbiology
                0893-8512
                January 09 2012
                January 01 2012
                January 09 2012
                January 01 2012
                : 25
                : 1
                : 42-78
                Article
                10.1128/CMR.05009-11
                3255967
                22232371
                © 2012
                Product
                Self URI (article page): https://cmr.asm.org/content/25/1/42

                Comments

                Comment on this article