Mai Sugahara , Shinji Tanaka , Tetsuhiro Tanaka , Hisako Saito , Yu Ishimoto , Takeshi Wakashima , Masatoshi Ueda , Kenji Fukui , Akira Shimizu , Reiko Inagi , Toshimasa Yamauchi , Takashi Kadowaki , Masaomi Nangaku
February 28 2020
January 29 2020
Prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) inhibitors, which stimulate erythropoietin production through the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), are novel therapeutic agents used for treating renal anemia. Several PHD inhibitors, including enarodustat, are currently undergoing phase 2 or phase 3 clinical trials. Because HIF regulates a broad spectrum of genes, PHD inhibitors are expected to have other effects in addition to erythropoiesis, such as protection against metabolic disorders. However, whether such beneficial effects would extend to metabolic disorder–related kidney disease is largely unknown.
We administered enarodustat or vehicle without enarodustat in feed to diabetic black and tan brachyury (BTBR) ob/ob mice from 4 to 22 weeks of age. To elucidate molecular changes induced by enarodustat, we performed transcriptome analysis of isolated glomeruli and in vitro experiments using murine mesangial cells.
Compared with BTBR ob/ob mice that received only vehicle, BTBR ob/ob mice treated with enarodustat displayed lower body weight, reduced blood glucose levels with improved insulin sensitivity, lower total cholesterol levels, higher adiponectin levels, and less adipose tissue, as well as a tendency for lower macrophage infiltration. Enarodustat-treated mice also exhibited reduced albuminuria and amelioration of glomerular epithelial and endothelial damage. Transcriptome analysis of isolated glomeruli revealed reduced expression of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) in enarodustat-treated mice compared with the vehicle-only group, accompanied by reduced glomerular macrophage infiltration. In vitro experiments demonstrated that both local HIF-1 activation and restoration of adiponectin by enarodustat contributed to CCL2/MCP-1 reduction in mesangial cells.