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      A case of systemic sarcoidosis with mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis showing predominant deposition of IgG in the mesangial region

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          Kidney biopsy is a sensitive tool for retrospective diagnosis of PLA2R-related membranous nephropathy.

          Antibodies against M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) are serological markers of disease activity in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN). To determine the most sensitive test for the diagnosis of PLA2R-related membranous nephropathy (MN) irrespective of sampling time, we investigated the presence of PLA2R in glomerular immune deposits and assessed circulating anti-PLA2R antibodies in a retrospective cohort of Czech patients with idiopathic, lupus and other few secondary MN. We tested archival paraffin-embedded kidney biopsies of 84 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven MN, for the presence of PLA2R in glomerular immune deposits and we measured circulating anti-PLA2R antibodies using the indirect immunofluorescence test, all reagents being commercially available. In 45 of 65 (69%) patients with iMN, PLA2R was detected in a finely granular pattern in sub-epithelial deposits along glomerular capillary loops. Circulating anti-PLA2R antibodies were detected in 20 of 31 (65%) sera from patients sampled during active disease. Six patients with active disease were negative for circulating anti-PLA2R antibodies despite PLA2R antigen positivity in the kidney biopsies. Only 8 of 37 (22%) sera sampled at the time of remission were PLA2R positive while PLA2R antigen was found in 22 of the 37 (59%) corresponding biopsies. PLA2R was found in immune deposits in 3 patients with secondary MN (2 with hepatitis B, and 1 with sarcoidosis) but in none of the 16 patients with lupus. In case of delayed serum sampling, assessment of PLA2R antigen in biopsy specimens is more sensitive than the serological test for the diagnosis of PLA2R-related MN which can be established retrospectively.
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            Determination of primary versus secondary membranous glomerulopathy utilizing phospholipase A2 receptor staining in renal biopsies.

            Autoantibody formation directed against phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R)1 is the underlying etiology in most cases of primary membranous glomerulopathy. This new understanding of the pathogenesis of primary membranous is in the process of transforming the way the disease is diagnosed. We validated an indirect immunofluorescence assay to examine PLA2R1 in renal biopsies utilizing a commercially available antibody and standard indirect immunofluorescence. Using this assay, we examined a total of 165 cases of membranous glomerulopathy including 85 primary and 80 secondary. We found tissue staining for PLA2R1 to have a sensitivity of 75% (95% CI 65-84%) and a specificity of 83% (95% CI 72-90%) for primary membranous glomerulopathy. Hepatitis C virus was the secondary etiology with the most number of cases staining positive for PLA2R1 (7/11, 64%) followed by sarcoidosis (3/4, 75%) and neoplasm (3/12, 25%). Autoimmune etiologies showed rare PLA2R1-positive staining (1/46, 2%). All cases of secondary membranous glomerulopathy with positive PLA2R1 showed IgG4-predominant staining, which is typically associated with primary membranous glomerulopathy. This IgG4 predominance raises the possibility that these cases are more pathogenically related to primary membranous glomerulopathy than secondary. We present the largest case series to date examining PLA2R1 involvement in membranous glomerulopathy utilizing a technique that is readily adoptable by most renal pathology laboratories.
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              Phospholipase A2 receptor and sarcoidosis-associated membranous nephropathy

              Of the glomerulonephritis associated with sarcoidosis, membranous nephropathy (MN) is the most prevalent. Coincidence or a causal relationship between these two diseases is unclear. Here, we present for the first time a high prevalence of PLA2R-related MN among patients with MN associated with active sarcoidosis. Our results suggest some causal link between sarcoidosis and PLA2R-related MN. Detection of anti-PLA2R antibodies in serum or PLA2R antigen in biopsy should not be taken as evidence against a secondary cause, particularly sarcoidosis. This important observation can affect treatment decision in these patients.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                CEN Case Reports
                CEN Case Rep
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                2192-4449
                May 2022
                November 09 2021
                May 2022
                : 11
                : 2
                : 231-236
                Article
                10.1007/s13730-021-00660-4
                d0606899-4971-4ee1-a696-0f99acdd650e
                © 2022

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

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