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      Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth: A longitudinal follow-up study

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          Abstract

          Background and Aims

          Recent work has studied addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. This is the first longitudinal study using a matrix measure.

          Methods

          We investigated the use of this approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years at baseline; longitudinal n = 538) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, hard drugs, shopping, gambling, Internet, love, sex, eating, work, and exercise). These were examined at two time-points one year apart. Latent class and latent transition analyses (LCA and LTA) were conducted in Mplus.

          Results

          Prevalence rates were stable across the two time-points. As in the cross-sectional baseline analysis, the 2-class model (addiction class, non-addiction class) fit the data better at follow-up than models with more classes. Item-response or conditional probabilities for each addiction type did not differ between time-points. As a result, the LTA model utilized constrained the conditional probabilities to be equal across the two time-points. In the addiction class, larger conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.40−0.49) were found for love, sex, exercise, and work addictions; medium conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.17−0.27) were found for cigarette, alcohol, other drugs, eating, Internet and shopping addiction; and a small conditional probability (0.06) was found for gambling.

          Discussion and Conclusions

          Persons in an addiction class tend to remain in this addiction class over a one-year period.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Prevalence of the addictions: a problem of the majority or the minority?

          An increasing number of research studies over the last three decades suggest that a wide range of substance and process addictions may serve similar functions. The current article considers 11 such potential addictions (tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, love, sex, exercise, work, and shopping), their prevalence, and co-occurrence, based on a systematic review of the literature. Data from 83 studies (each study n = at least 500 subjects) were presented and supplemented with small-scale data. Depending on which assumptions are made, overall 12-month prevalence of an addiction among U.S. adults varies from 15% to 61%. The authors assert that it is most plausible that 47% of the U.S. adult population suffers from maladaptive signs of an addictive disorder over a 12-month period and that it may be useful to think of addictions as due to problems of lifestyle as well as to person-level factors.
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            Is Open Access

            Online gaming addiction in children and adolescents: A review of empirical research

             Daria Kuss (corresponding) ,  Mark Griffiths (corresponding) (2012)
            Background and aims: Research suggests that excessive online gaming may lead to symptoms commonly experienced by substance addicts. Since games are particularly appealing to children and adolescents, these individuals may be more at risk than other groups of developing gaming addiction. Methods: Given these potential concerns, a literature review was undertaken in order (i) to present the classification basis of online gaming addiction using official mental disorder frameworks, (ii) to identify empirical studies that assess online gaming addiction in children and adolescents, and (iii) to present and evaluate the findings against the background of related and established mental disorder criteria. Results: Empirical evidence comprising 30 studies indicates that for some adolescents, gaming addiction exists and that as the addiction develops, online gaming addicts spend increasing amounts of time preparing for, organizing, and actually gaming. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that problematic online gaming can be conceptualized as a behavioral addiction rather than a disorder of impulse control.
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              Is Open Access

              Behavioral addictions: Past, present and future

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                September 2015
                29 September 2015
                : 4
                : 3
                : 189-194
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine , Alhambra, CA, USA
                [2 ]Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center , Honolulu, HI, USA
                Author notes
                * Corresponding author: Steve Sussman, PhD, FAAHB, FAPA; Departments of Preventive Medicine and Psychology, and School of Social Work, Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, University of Southern California, Soto Street Building, 2001 North Soto Street, Room 302A, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA; Phone: +1-323-442-8220; Cell phone: +1-626-376- 0389; Fax: +1-626-442-8201; E-mail: ssussma@ 123456usc.edu
                Article
                10.1556/2006.4.2015.027
                4627680
                26551909
                © 2015 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, References: 19, Pages: 6
                Product
                Funding
                This paper was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA020138).
                Categories
                Full-Length Report

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