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      Romantic Love vs. Drug Addiction May Inspire a New Treatment for Addiction

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          Abstract

          Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA) system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT) system for romantic love and drug addiction. These findings indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial behavior. It seems that the OT system is a critical factor for the development of addiction. So we then discuss strategies to treat drug addiction with OT, and suggest that future research should further investigate OT system interventions aiming to improve cognitive control and/or social cognition functions, in order to develop strategies designed to more effectively treat drug addiction.

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          How do you feel--now? The anterior insula and human awareness.

          The anterior insular cortex (AIC) is implicated in a wide range of conditions and behaviours, from bowel distension and orgasm, to cigarette craving and maternal love, to decision making and sudden insight. Its function in the re-representation of interoception offers one possible basis for its involvement in all subjective feelings. New findings suggest a fundamental role for the AIC (and the von Economo neurons it contains) in awareness, and thus it needs to be considered as a potential neural correlate of consciousness.
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            Spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

            The majority of functional neuroscience studies have focused on the brain's response to a task or stimulus. However, the brain is very active even in the absence of explicit input or output. In this Article we review recent studies examining spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging as a potentially important and revealing manifestation of spontaneous neuronal activity. Although several challenges remain, these studies have provided insight into the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain, variability in behaviour and potential physiological correlates of neurological and psychiatric disease.
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              Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in addiction: neuroimaging findings and clinical implications.

              The loss of control over drug intake that occurs in addiction was initially believed to result from disruption of subcortical reward circuits. However, imaging studies in addictive behaviours have identified a key involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) both through its regulation of limbic reward regions and its involvement in higher-order executive function (for example, self-control, salience attribution and awareness). This Review focuses on functional neuroimaging studies conducted in the past decade that have expanded our understanding of the involvement of the PFC in drug addiction. Disruption of the PFC in addiction underlies not only compulsive drug taking but also accounts for the disadvantageous behaviours that are associated with addiction and the erosion of free will.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-1078
                22 September 2016
                2016
                : 7
                : 1436
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University Chongqing, China
                [2] 2Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, CAS Hefei, China
                [3] 3Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Disease, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China Hefei, China
                [4] 4School of Humanities and Social Science, University of Science and Technology of China Hefei, China
                [5] 5Centers for Biomedical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China Hefei, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Charlotte A. Boettiger, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA

                Reviewed by: Kai Yuan, Xidian University, China; Erin Burdwood, University of Delaware, USA

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work and shared first authorship.

                Article
                10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01436
                5031705
                27713720
                4d020ead-fad7-4c5c-9a8c-f562c61dc46d
                Copyright © 2016 Zou, Song, Zhang and Zhang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 29 January 2016
                : 07 September 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 99, Pages: 12, Words: 9993
                Categories
                Psychology
                Focused Review

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                romantic love,social cognition system,drug addiction,oxytocin,resting-state functional connectivity,drug addiction treatment

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