To examine the prevalence and predictors of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder among mothers of children who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A total of 111 mothers of children who survived HSCT completed self-report measures of psychological functioning at the time of HSCT and self-report measures and a structured psychiatric interview 18 months after HSCT. Demographic data and medical data were also collected. Approximately 20% of mothers had clinically significant distress reactions. When subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder was included, nearly one third of mothers met the criterion for persistent distress. Mothers with 1 of the 4 psychiatric diagnoses reported a significantly lower quality of life, suggesting that the diagnoses had an impact on their general quality of life. Mothers who had 1 of the 4 diagnoses at 18 months were younger and had higher anxiety and depressive symptoms at the time of HSCT. A subset of mothers of children who survive HSCT may require psychological intervention. Mothers who are most at risk are younger and evidence anxiety and depressive symptoms at the time of transplantation.