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      Kinetic Analysis of the Slow Skeletal Myosin MHC-1 Isoform from Bovine Masseter Muscle

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          Abstract

          Several heavy chain isoforms of class II myosins are found in muscle fibres and show a large variety of different mechanical activities. Fast myosins (myosin heavy chain (MHC)-II-2) contract at higher velocities than slow myosins (MHC-II-1, also known as β-myosin) and it has been well established that ADP binding to actomyosin is much tighter for MHC-II-1 than for MHC-II-2. Recently, we reported several other differences between MHC-II isoforms 1 and 2 of the rabbit. Isoform II-1 unlike II-2 gave biphasic dissociation of actomyosin by ATP, the ATP-cleavage step was significantly slower for MHC-II-1 and the slow isoforms showed the presence of multiple actomyosin–ADP complexes. These results are in contrast to published data on MHC-II-1 from bovine left ventricle muscle, which was more similar to the fast skeletal isoform. Bovine MHC-II-1 is the predominant isoform expressed in both the ventricular myocardium and slow skeletal muscle fibres such as the masseter and is an important source of reference work for cardiac muscle physiology. This work examines and extends the kinetics of bovine MHC-II-1. We confirm the primary findings from the work on rabbit soleus MHC-II-1. Of significance is that we show that the affinity of ADP for bovine masseter myosin in the absence of actin (represented by the dissociation constant K D) is weaker than originally described for bovine cardiac myosin and thus the thermodynamic coupling between ADP and actin binding to myosin is much smaller ( K AD/ K D ∼ 5 instead of K AD/ K D ∼ 50). This may indicate a distinct type of mechanochemical coupling for this group of myosin motors. We also find that the ATP-hydrolysis rate is much slower for bovine MHC-II-1 (19 s −1) than reported previously (138 s −1). We discuss how this work fits into a broader characterisation of myosin motors from across the myosin family.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Molecular diversity of myofibrillar proteins: gene regulation and functional significance.

          Myofibrillar proteins exist as multiple isoforms that derive from multigene (isogene) families. Additional isoforms, including products of tropomyosin, myosin light chain 1 fast, troponin T, titin, and nebulin genes, can be generated from the same gene through alternative splicing or use of alternative promoters. Myofibrillar protein isogenes are differentially expressed in various muscle types and fiber types but can be coexpressed within the same fiber. Isogenes are regulated by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms; however, specific regulatory sequences and transcriptional factors have not yet been identified. The pattern of isogene expression varies during muscle development in relation to the different origin of myogenic cells and primary/secondary fiber generations and is affected by neural and hormonal influences. The variable expression of myofibrillar protein isoforms is a major determinant of the contractile properties of skeletal muscle fibers. The diversity among isomyosins is related to the differences in the parameters of chemomechanical transduction as ATP hydrolysis rate and shortening velocity. Troponin and tropomyosin isoforms determine the variable sensitivity to calcium, whereas titin isoforms dictate the elastic properties of muscle fibers at rest. Both myosin and troponin isoforms contribute to the differences in the resistance to fatigue of muscle fibers.
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            Purification of muscle actin.

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              Myosin VI is an actin-based motor that moves backwards.

              Myosins and kinesins are molecular motors that hydrolyse ATP to track along actin filaments and microtubules, respectively. Although the kinesin family includes motors that move towards either the plus or minus ends of microtubules, all characterized myosin motors move towards the barbed (+) end of actin filaments. Crystal structures of myosin II (refs 3-6) have shown that small movements within the myosin motor core are transmitted through the 'converter domain' to a 'lever arm' consisting of a light-chain-binding helix and associated light chains. The lever arm further amplifies the motions of the converter domain into large directed movements. Here we report that myosin VI, an unconventional myosin, moves towards the pointed (-) end of actin. We visualized the myosin VI construct bound to actin using cryo-electron microscopy and image analysis, and found that an ADP-mediated conformational change in the domain distal to the motor, a structure likely to be the effective lever arm, is in the opposite direction to that observed for other myosins. Thus, it appears that myosin VI achieves reverse-direction movement by rotating its lever arm in the opposite direction to conventional myosin lever arm movement.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Mol Biol
                Journal of Molecular Biology
                Elsevier
                0022-2836
                1089-8638
                09 November 2007
                09 November 2007
                : 373
                : 5
                : 1184-1197
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Protein Science Group, Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NJ, UK
                [2 ]Department of Anatomy and Physiology, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 3, Padua, 35131 Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. m.a.geeves@ 123456kent.ac.uk
                Article
                YJMBI59699
                10.1016/j.jmb.2007.08.050
                2098880
                17900618
                .

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