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      Gold Nanoparticles in Diagnostics and Therapeutics for Human Cancer


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          The application of nanotechnology for the treatment of cancer is mostly based on early tumor detection and diagnosis by nanodevices capable of selective targeting and delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the specific tumor site. Due to the remarkable properties of gold nanoparticles, they have long been considered as a potential tool for diagnosis of various cancers and for drug delivery applications. These properties include high surface area to volume ratio, surface plasmon resonance, surface chemistry and multi-functionalization, facile synthesis, and stable nature. Moreover, the non-toxic and non-immunogenic nature of gold nanoparticles and the high permeability and retention effect provide additional benefits by enabling easy penetration and accumulation of drugs at the tumor sites. Various innovative approaches with gold nanoparticles are under development. In this review, we provide an overview of recent progress made in the application of gold nanoparticles in the treatment of cancer by tumor detection, drug delivery, imaging, photothermal and photodynamic therapy and their current limitations in terms of bioavailability and the fate of the nanoparticles.

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          Selective laser photo-thermal therapy of epithelial carcinoma using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles.

          Efficient conversion of strongly absorbed light by plasmonic gold nanoparticles to heat energy and their easy bioconjugation suggest their use as selective photothermal agents in molecular cancer cell targeting. Two oral squamous carcinoma cell lines (HSC 313 and HOC 3 Clone 8) and one benign epithelial cell line (HaCaT) were incubated with anti-epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles and then exposed to continuous visible argon ion laser at 514nm. It is found that the malignant cells require less than half the laser energy to be killed than the benign cells after incubation with anti-EGFR antibody conjugated Au nanoparticles. No photothermal destruction is observed for all types of cells in the absence of nanoparticles at four times energy required to kill the malignant cells with anti-EGFR/Au conjugates bonded. Au nanoparticles thus offer a novel class of selective photothermal agents using a CW laser at low powers. The potential of using this selective technique in molecularly targeted photothermal therapy in vivo is discussed.
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            Biodistribution of colloidal gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration: effect of particle size.

            Purpose of the present research work was to evaluate the biological distribution of differently size gold nanoparticles (NP) up on intravenous administration in mice. Another objective was to study effect of particle size on biological distribution of gold NP to enable their diverse applications in nanotechnology. Gold NP of different particle sizes, mainly 15, 50, 100 and 200 nm, were synthesized by modifying citrate ion concentration. Synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by SEM and their size distribution was studied by particle size analyzer. Gold NP was suspended in sodium alginate solution (0.5%, w/v) and administered to mice (1g/kg, intravenously) [n=3]. After 24h of administration of gold NP, blood was collected under light ether anesthesia, mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and various tissues/organs were removed. The tissues were then washed with saline, homogenized and lysed with aqua regia. The determination of gold in samples was carried out quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). SEM study revealed spherical morphology of gold NP with narrow particle size distribution. Biodistribution study revealed gold NPs of all sizes were mainly accumulated in organs like liver, lung and spleen. The accumulation of gold NP in various tissues was found to be depending on particle size. 15 nm gold NP revealed higher amount of gold and number of particles in all the tissues including blood, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, brain, heart, stomach. Interestingly, 15 and 50 nm gold NP were able to pass blood-brain barrier as evident from gold concentration in brain. Two-hundred nanometers gold NP showed very minute presence in organs including blood, brain, stomach and pancreas. The results revealed that tissue distribution of gold nanoparticles is size-dependent with the smallest 15 nm nanoparticles showing the most widespread organ distribution.
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              Doxorubicin-tethered responsive gold nanoparticles facilitate intracellular drug delivery for overcoming multidrug resistance in cancer cells.

              Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major impediment to the success of cancer chemotherapy. Through the development of a drug delivery system that tethers doxorubicin onto the surface of gold nanoparticles with a poly(ethylene glycol) spacer via an acid-labile linkage (DOX-Hyd@AuNPs), we have demonstrated that multidrug resistance in cancer cells can be significantly overcome by a combination of highly efficient cellular entry and a responsive intracellular release of doxorubicin from the gold nanoparticles in acidic organelles. DOX-Hyd@AuNPs achieved enhanced drug accumulation and retention in multidrug resistant MCF-7/ADR cancer cells when it was compared with free doxorubicin. It released doxorubicin in response to the pH of acidic organelles following endocytosis, opposite to the noneffective drug release from doxorubicin-tethered gold nanoparticles via the carbamate linkage (DOX-Cbm@AuNPs), which was shown by the recovered fluorescence of doxorubicin from quenching due to the nanosurface energy transfer between the doxorubicinyl groups and the gold nanoparticles. DOX-Hyd@AuNPs therefore significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and induced elevated apoptosis of MCF-7/ADR cancer cells. With a combined therapeutic potential and ability to probe drug release, DOX-Hyd@AuNPs represent a model with dual roles in overcoming MDR in cancer cells and probing the intracellular release of drug from its delivery system.

                Author and article information

                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                06 July 2018
                July 2018
                : 19
                : 7
                [1 ]The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark; prisin@ 123456biosustain.dtu.dk (P.S.); abhgar@ 123456biosustain.dtu.dk (A.G.); vairav@ 123456biosustain.dtu.dk (V.R.)
                [2 ]Systems and Synthetic Biology Division, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Chalmers, Sweden; pandit@ 123456chalmers.se (S.P.); ragmok@ 123456chalmers.se (V.R.S.S.M.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ivan.mijakovic@ 123456chalmers.se ; Tel.: +46-070-982-8446
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                Molecular biology
                gold nanoparticles,cancer,protein corona,biocompatibility,photoimaging,drug delivery,photothermal therapy,photodynamic therapy,clinical trials,toxicology


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