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      Epidemiology of acute renal failure: A prospective, multicenter, community-based study

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      Kidney International

      Springer Nature

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          Most cited references 24

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          Hospital-acquired renal insufficiency: a prospective study.

          Twenty-two hundred sixty-two consecutive medical and surgical admissions were evaluated prospectively to determine the contribution of iatrogenic factors to the development of renal insufficiency in hospital. Of 2,216 patients at risk, some degree of renal insufficiency developed in 4.9 percent. Decreased renal perfusion, postoperative renal insufficiency, radiographic contrast media, and aminoglycosides accounted for 79 percent of the episodes. Iatrogenic factors, broadly defined, accounted for 55 percent of all episodes. Poor prognostic indicators included oliguria, urine sediment abnormalities and, most importantly, severity of renal insufficiency; with an increase in serum creatinine of 3 mg/dl or greater, the mortality rate was 64 percent. Age, admission serum creatinine levels, and the number of episodes of renal insufficiency did not significantly affect outcome. We conclude that there is a substantial risk of the development of renal failure in hospital and that the mortality rate due to hospital-acquired renal insufficiency remains high.
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            Community-acquired acute renal failure.

            Acute renal failure usually occurs during hospitalization, but may also be present on admission to the hospital. To define the causes and outcomes of community-acquired acute renal failure, we undertook a prospective study of patients admitted to the hospital with acute elevations in serum creatinine concentrations. Over a 17-month period, all admission serum creatinine determinations were screened for patients with values greater than 177 mumol/L (2 mg/dL). These values were compared with baseline creatinines to select patients with an acute elevation in serum creatinine occurring outside the hospital. One hundred patients were entered into the study, with an overall incidence of 1% of hospital admissions. Seventy percent of the patients had prerenal azotemia, 11% had intrinsic acute renal failure, 17% had obstruction, and 2% could not be classified. Mean peak serum creatinine (318 +/- 18 mumol/L [3.6 +/- 0.2 mg/dL]) and mortality (7%) was lowest in the group with prerenal azotemia. In this group, volume contraction due to vomiting, decreased fluid intake, diarrhea, fever, glucosuria, or diuretics was the most common underlying cause. The group with intrinsic acute renal failure had the most severe renal failure and the highest mortality (55%). Although ischemic acute tubular necrosis is the most common cause of hospital-acquired intrinsic acute renal failure, this etiology was seen in only one patient. Drug-induced nephrotoxicity and infection-related causes were the most common underlying etiologies of intrinsic acute renal failure. Obstructive renal failure had a mortality of 24% and was most commonly due to benign prostatic hypertrophy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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              Incidence of severe acute renal failure in adults: results of a community based study.

              To determine the age related incidence of severe acute renal failure in adults in two health districts in England. Prospective study of patients identified as having severe acute renal failure within a two year period; subsequent monitoring of outcome for a further two years. Two health districts in Devon. Those adults in a population of 444,971 who developed severe acute renal failure (serum creatinine concentration > 500 mumol/l) for the first time during two years, with subsequent fall of the serum creatinine concentration below the index value. 125 adults (140 per million total population yearly, 172 per million adults) developed severe acute renal failure, of whom 90 (72%) were over 70. Age related incidence rose from 17 per million yearly in adults under 50 to 949 per million yearly in the 80-89 age groups. In 31 patients (25%) the cause was prostatic disease, which was related to a good prognosis (84% (26) alive at three months). Overall survival was 54% (67) at three months and 34% (42) at two years and was not significantly age related. 18 per million total population yearly (22 per million adult population) received acute dialysis. Referral rate for specialised opinion was 51 per million total population yearly with an estimated appropriate referral rate of 70 per million per year. The incidence of severe acute renal failure in the community is at least twice as high as the incidence reported from renal unit based studies. Prostatic disease, a preventable and treatable problem, is the most common cause. Survival figures indicate that age alone should not be a bar to specialist referral or treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Kidney International
                Kidney International
                Springer Nature
                00852538
                September 1996
                September 1996
                : 50
                : 3
                : 811-818
                Article
                10.1038/ki.1996.380
                © 1996

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