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      Stress Distribution in Human Zygomatic Pillar Using Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis Translated title: Distribución de la Tensión en el Pilar Cigomático Humano Usando Análisis de Elementos Finitos Tridimensional

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          Abstract

          This paper aimed to analyze stress distribution in human zygomatic pillar during masseter muscle contraction using three-dimensional finite element analysis. A three-dimensional model and hemi facial skull were produced based on CT-scan data. An adult male skull with structural anatomy integrity was used as model. Muscles forces were applied at origin of elevator muscles and supports was applied at the occlusal surfaces at first and second molars to simulate a masticatory load and stimulate the zygomatic pillar. Supports were applied to the occlusal contacts. Symmetry conditions were placed at the mid-sagittal plane. For the top and back cutting plane, constraints were used. Equivalent Von-Mises Stress and Maximum Principal Stress analysis were performed from the stress fields along the zygomatic pillar. It was represented by stress concentration at the alveolar process, zygomatic bone, frontal and temporal process of zygomatic bone and superciliary arch. Stress line indicates distribution of stress from maxilla toward the frontal and temporal bone. The stresses occurred due to resultant occlusal forces is mainly supported by the zygomatic bone, non-uniformly distributed and predominantly through the zygomatic pillar. This study contributed to better understanding of stress distribution in zygomatic pillar to understand the influence of chewing on zygomatic pillar morphology and also be useful for clinical practice.

          Translated abstract

          El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar la distribución de la tensión en el pilar cigomático humano durante la contracción del músculo masetero utilizando análisis de elementos finitos tridimensionales. Un modelo de tres dimensiones de dientes del hemicráneo facial fueron producidos sobre la base de datos de CT-scan. Se utilizó como modelo un cráneo adulto de sexo masculino con la integridad de la anatomía estructural. Fuerzas musculares se aplicaron en el origen de los ascensores de los músculos de la mandíbula y soportes se aplicaron a la superficie oclusal del primer y segundo molar para simular una carga masticatoria y estimular el pilar cigomático. Condiciones de simetría se colocaron en el plano mediano. Se utilizaron restricciones en los planos superior y posterior. El análisis de las tensiones equivalentes von-Mises y máximo director se realizó a través del campo de esfuerzos a lo largo del pilar cigomático. Fue representada la concentración de esfuerzos en el proceso alveolar, hueso cigomático, proceso frontal y temporal del hueso cigomático y el arco superciliar. La línea de tensión indica la distribución de la tensión del maxilar hacia el hueso frontal y temporal. Las tensiones se produjeron debido a las fuerzas oclusales resultantes, que se apoyan principalmente por el hueso cigomático, distribuidas de manera no uniforme y sobre todo a través del pilar cigomático. Este estudio ha contribuido a una mejor comprensión de la distribución de la tensión en el pilar cigomático para entender la influencia de la masticación sobre la morfología de este pilar y ser de utilidad en la práctica clínica.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Three rules for bone adaptation to mechanical stimuli.

           C.H. Turner (1998)
          The primary mechanical function of bones is to provide rigid levers for muscles to pull against, and to remain as light as possible to allow efficient locomotion. To accomplish this bones must adapt their shape and architecture to make efficient use of material. Bone adaptation during skeletal growth and development continuously adjusts skeletal mass and architecture to changing mechanical environments. There are three fundamental rules that govern bone adaptation: (1) It is driven by dynamic, rather than static, loading. (2) Only a short duration of mechanical loading is necessary to initiate an adaptive response. (3) Bone cells accommodate to a customary mechanical loading environment, making them less responsive to routine loading signals. From these rules, several mathematical equations can be derived that provide simple parametric models for bone adaptation.
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            In vivo function of the craniofacial haft: the interorbital "pillar".

            The craniofacial haft resists forces generated in the face during feeding, but the importance of these forces for the form of the craniofacial haft remains to be determined. In vivo bone strain data were recorded from the medial orbital wall in an owl monkey (Aotus), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and a galago (Otolemur) during feeding. These data were used to determine whether: the interorbital region can be modeled as a simple beam under bending or shear; the face is twisting on the brain case during unilateral biting or mastication; the interorbital "pillar" is being axially compressed during incisor loading and both axially compressed and laterally bent during mastication; and the interorbital "pillar" transmits axial compressive forces from the toothrow to the braincase. The strain data reveal that the interorbital region cannot be modeled as a anteroposteriorly oriented beam bent superiorly in the sagittal plane during incision or mastication. The strain orientations recorded in the majority of experiments are concordant with those predicted for a short beam under shear, although the anthropoids displayed evidence of multiple loading regimes in the medial orbital wall. Strain orientation data corroborate the hypothesis that the strepsirrhine face is twisted during mastication. The hypothesis that the interorbital region is a member in a rigid frame subjected to axial compression during mastication receives some support. The hypothesis that the interorbital region is a member in a rigid frame subjected to lateral bending during mastication is supported by the epsilon1/absolute value epsilon2 ratio data but not by the strain orientation data. The timing of peak shear strains in the medial orbital wall of anthropoids does not bear a consistent relationship to the timing of peak shear strain in the mandibular corpus, suggesting that bite force is not the only external force influencing the medial orbital wall. Strain orientation data suggest the existence of two distinct loading regimes, possibly associated with masseter or medial pterygoid contraction. Regardless of the loading regime, all taxa showed low strain magnitudes in the medial orbital wall relative to the anterior root of the zygoma and the mandibular corpus. The strain gradients documented here and elsewhere suggest that, in anthropoids at least, local effects of external forces are more important than a single global loading regime. The low strain magnitudes in the medial orbital wall and in other thin bony plates around the orbit suggest that these structures are not optimally designed for resisting feeding forces. It is hypothesized that their function is to provide rigid support and protection for soft-tissue structures such as the nasal epithelium, the brain, meninges, and the eye and its adnexa. In contrast with the face of Otolemur, which appears to be subjected to a single predominant loading regime, anthropoids may experience different loading regimes in different parts of the face. This implies that the anthropoid and strepsirrhine facial skulls might be optimized for different functions. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Masticatory muscles and the skull: a comparative perspective.

              Masticatory muscles are anatomically and functionally complex in all mammals, but relative sizes, orientation of action lines, and fascial subdivisions vary greatly among different species in association with their particular patterns of occlusion and jaw movement. The most common contraction pattern for moving the jaw laterally involves a force couple of protrusor muscles on one side and retrusors on the other. Such asymmetrical muscle usage sets up torques on the skull and combines with occlusal loads to produce bony deformations not only in the tooth-bearing jaw bones, but also in more distant elements such as the braincase. Maintenance of bone in the jaw joint, and probably elsewhere in the skull, is dependent on these loads.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                ijmorphol
                International Journal of Morphology
                Int. J. Morphol.
                Sociedad Chilena de Anatomía (Temuco )
                0717-9502
                December 2013
                : 31
                : 4
                : 1386-1392
                Affiliations
                [1 ] State University of Campinas Brazil
                [2 ] Center for Information Technology Renato Archer Brazil
                [3 ] State University of Campinas Brazil
                Article
                S0717-95022013000400038
                10.4067/S0717-95022013000400038
                d6e28a61-3f62-4c13-a448-76d056174d94
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                ANATOMY & MORPHOLOGY

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