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      A Critical Review of Glucose Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanomaterials: Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

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          There has been an explosion of research into the physical and chemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterials, since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by Iijima in 1991. Carbon nanomaterials offer unique advantages in several areas, like high surface-volume ratio, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability and strong mechanical strength, and are thus frequently being incorporated into sensing elements. Carbon nanomaterial-based sensors generally have higher sensitivities and a lower detection limit than conventional ones. In this review, a brief history of glucose biosensors is firstly presented. The carbon nanotube and grapheme-based biosensors, are introduced in Sections 3 and 4, respectively, which cover synthesis methods, up-to-date sensing approaches and nonenzymatic hybrid sensors. Finally, we briefly outline the current status and future direction for carbon nanomaterials to be used in the sensing area.

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          Most cited references 162

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          Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

          We report a naturally-occurring two-dimensional material (graphene that can be viewed as a gigantic flat fullerene molecule, describe its electronic properties and demonstrate all-metallic field-effect transistor, which uniquely exhibits ballistic transport at submicron distances even at room temperature.
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            Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon

             Sumio Iijima (1991)
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              Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition.

              In this work we present a low cost and scalable technique, via ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on polycrystalline Ni films, to fabricate large area ( approximately cm2) films of single- to few-layer graphene and to transfer the films to nonspecific substrates. These films consist of regions of 1 to approximately 12 graphene layers. Single- or bilayer regions can be up to 20 mum in lateral size. The films are continuous over the entire area and can be patterned lithographically or by prepatterning the underlying Ni film. The transparency, conductivity, and ambipolar transfer characteristics of the films suggest their potential as another materials candidate for electronics and opto-electronic applications.

                Author and article information

                [1 ] Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0FA, UK; E-Mails: lg371@ (L.G.-G.); ajf@ (A.J.F.); wim1@ (W.I.M.)
                [2 ] School of Urban Development and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209, China; E-Mail: hqxie@
                [3 ] Brunel Institute for Bioengineering, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH, UK; E-Mail: moussyf@
                [4 ] Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: Zhigang.Zhu259@ ; Tel.: +44-1223-7483-04; Fax: +44-1223-7483-48.
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                10 May 2012
                : 12
                : 5
                : 5996-6022
                © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (



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