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A Critical Review of Glucose Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanomaterials: Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

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      Abstract

      There has been an explosion of research into the physical and chemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterials, since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by Iijima in 1991. Carbon nanomaterials offer unique advantages in several areas, like high surface-volume ratio, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability and strong mechanical strength, and are thus frequently being incorporated into sensing elements. Carbon nanomaterial-based sensors generally have higher sensitivities and a lower detection limit than conventional ones. In this review, a brief history of glucose biosensors is firstly presented. The carbon nanotube and grapheme-based biosensors, are introduced in Sections 3 and 4, respectively, which cover synthesis methods, up-to-date sensing approaches and nonenzymatic hybrid sensors. Finally, we briefly outline the current status and future direction for carbon nanomaterials to be used in the sensing area.

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      Most cited references 162

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      Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

      We report a naturally-occurring two-dimensional material (graphene that can be viewed as a gigantic flat fullerene molecule, describe its electronic properties and demonstrate all-metallic field-effect transistor, which uniquely exhibits ballistic transport at submicron distances even at room temperature.
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        Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon

         Sumio Iijima (1991)
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          Chemical methods for the production of graphenes.

          Interest in graphene centres on its excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties, its very high specific surface area, and our ability to influence these properties through chemical functionalization. There are a number of methods for generating graphene and chemically modified graphene from graphite and derivatives of graphite, each with different advantages and disadvantages. Here we review the use of colloidal suspensions to produce new materials composed of graphene and chemically modified graphene. This approach is both versatile and scalable, and is adaptable to a wide variety of applications.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0FA, UK; E-Mails: lg371@ 123456cam.ac.uk (L.G.-G.); ajf@ 123456eng.cam.ac.uk (A.J.F.); wim1@ 123456cam.ac.uk (W.I.M.)
            [2 ] School of Urban Development and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209, China; E-Mail: hqxie@ 123456eed.sspu.cn
            [3 ] Brunel Institute for Bioengineering, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH, UK; E-Mail: moussyf@ 123456who.int
            [4 ] Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Korea
            Author notes
            [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: Zhigang.Zhu259@ 123456gmail.com ; Tel.: +44-1223-7483-04; Fax: +44-1223-7483-48.
            Journal
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
            Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
            1424-8220
            2012
            10 May 2012
            : 12
            : 5
            : 5996-6022
            3386727
            22778628
            10.3390/s120505996
            sensors-12-05996
            © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

            This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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