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      Coronary Artery Aneurysms: A Review of the Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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          Coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) are uncommon and describe a localized dilatation of a coronary artery segment more than 1.5-fold compared with adjacent normal segments. The incidence of CAAs varies from 0.3 to 5.3%. Ever since the dawn of the interventional era, CAAs have been increasingly diagnosed on coronary angiography. Causative factors include atherosclerosis, Takayasu arteritis, congenital disorders, Kawasaki disease (KD), and percutaneous coronary intervention. The natural history of CAAs remains unclear; however, several recent studies have postulated the underlying molecular mechanisms of CAAs, and genome-wide association studies have revealed several genetic predispositions to CAA. Controversies persist regarding the management of CAAs, and emerging findings support the importance of an early diagnosis in patients predisposed to CAAs, such as in children with KD. This review aims to summarize the present knowledge of CAAs and collate the recent advances regarding the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease.

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          Diagnosis, Treatment, and Long-Term Management of Kawasaki Disease: A Statement for Health Professionals From the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association

          Kawasaki disease is an acute self-limited vasculitis of childhood that is characterized by fever, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis, erythema of the lips and oral mucosa, changes in the extremities, rash, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Coronary artery aneurysms or ectasia develop in approximately 15% to 25% of untreated children and may lead to ischemic heart disease or sudden death. A multidisciplinary committee of experts was convened to revise the American Heart Association recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease. The writing group proposes a new algorithm to aid clinicians in deciding which children with fever for > or =5 days and < or =4 classic criteria should undergo echocardiography, receive intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) treatment, or both for Kawasaki disease. The writing group reviews the available data regarding the initial treatment for children with acute Kawasaki disease, as well for those who have persistent or recrudescent fever despite initial therapy with IVIG, including IVIG retreatment and treatment with corticosteroids, tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists, and abciximab. Long-term management of patients with Kawasaki disease is tailored to the degree of coronary involvement; recommendations regarding antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy, physical activity, follow-up assessment, and the appropriate diagnostic procedures to evaluate cardiac disease are classified according to risk strata. Recommendations for the initial evaluation, treatment in the acute phase, and long-term management of patients with Kawasaki disease are intended to assist physicians in understanding the range of acceptable approaches for caring for patients with Kawasaki disease. The ultimate decisions for case management must be made by physicians in light of the particular conditions presented by individual patients.
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            Vascular responses to drug eluting stents: importance of delayed healing.

            Polymer-based sirolimus- (Cypher) and paclitaxel-eluting (Taxus) drug eluting stents have become the treatment of choice for patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Although these stents reduce rates of restenosis compared with bare metal stents (BMS), late thrombosis, a life threatening complication, has emerged as a major safety concern. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of late DES thrombosis is derived from animal and human pathologic samples taken after implantation of these devices. These data indicate that both DES cause substantial impairment in arterial healing characterized by lack of complete reendothelialization and persistence of fibrin when compared with BMS. This delayed healing is the primary substrate underlying all cases of late DES thrombosis at autopsy. Several additional risk factors for late stent thrombosis such as penetration of necrotic core, malapposition, overlapping stent placement, excessive stent length, and bifurcation lesions represent additional barriers to healing and should be avoided if DES are to be used to minimize the risk of late thrombosis. Because the time course of complete healing with DES in man is unknown, the optimal duration of antiplatelet treatment remains to be determined.
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              Clinical significance of coronary arterial ectasia.

               R Gorlin,  P Cohn,  D Feen (1976)
              In a study group of 2,457 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization, 30 patients had coronary arterial ectasia, an irregular dilatation of major vessels up to seven times the diameter of branch vessels. The frequency of hypertension, abnormal electrocardiogram and history of myocardial infarction was greater than that in a control group with obstructive coronary artery disease. Patients with ectasia did not differ from patients with obstructive disease in sex, age, prevalence of angina or presence of metabolic abnormalities. Six deaths occurred in the group with ectasia during a mean follow-up period of 24 months (annual rate of 15 percent). Extensive destruction of the musculoelastic elements was evident, resulting in marked attenuation of the vessel wall. The short-term prognosis in this group is the same as in medically treated patients with three vessel obstructive coronary artery disease.

                Author and article information

                Front Cardiovasc Med
                Front Cardiovasc Med
                Front. Cardiovasc. Med.
                Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                05 May 2017
                : 4
                1Cardiovascular Research Division, Kings College London , London, UK
                2Department of Cardiology, Memorial Hospital , Istanbul, Turkey
                3Ozel Saglik Hospital , Denizli, Turkey
                4Department of Cardiology, Pamukkale University , Denizli, Turkey
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jun-ichi Abe, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA

                Reviewed by: Ying Hu Shen, Baylor College of Medicine, USA; Vanesa Esteban, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Spain

                *Correspondence: Ismail Dogu Kilic, idogukilic@ 123456gmail.com

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Atherosclerosis and Vascular Medicine, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

                Copyright © 2017 Abou Sherif, Ozden Tok, Taşköylü, Goktekin and Kilic.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 135, Pages: 12, Words: 10247
                Cardiovascular Medicine


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