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      Cues that Spiders (Araneae: Araneidae, Tetragnathidae) Use to Build Orbs: Lapses in Attention to One Set of Cues because of Dissonance with Others?

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      Ethology

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era.

          The evolutionary diversification of spiders is attributed to spectacular innovations in silk. Spiders are unique in synthesizing many different kinds of silk, and using silk for a variety of ecological functions throughout their lives, particularly to make prey-catching webs. Here, we construct a broad higher-level phylogeny of spiders combining molecular data with traditional morphological and behavioral characters. We use this phylogeny to test the hypothesis that the spider orb web evolved only once. We then examine spider diversification in relation to different web architectures and silk use. We find strong support for a single origin of orb webs, implying a major shift in the spinning of capture silk and repeated loss or transformation of orb webs. We show that abandonment of costly cribellate capture silk correlates with the 2 major diversification events in spiders (1). Replacement of cribellate silk by aqueous silk glue may explain the greater diversity of modern orb-weaving spiders (Araneoidea) compared with cribellate orb-weaving spiders (Deinopoidea) (2). Within the "RTA clade," which is the sister group to orb-weaving spiders and contains half of all spider diversity, >90% of species richness is associated with repeated loss of cribellate silk and abandonment of prey capture webs. Accompanying cribellum loss in both groups is a release from substrate-constrained webs, whether by aerially suspended webs, or by abandoning webs altogether. These behavioral shifts in silk and web production by spiders thus likely played a key role in the dramatic evolutionary success and ecological dominance of spiders as predators of insects.
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            A phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Arachnida, Araneae)

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              Phylogeny of extant nephilid orb-weaving spiders (Araneae, Nephilidae): testing morphological and ethological homologies

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ethology
                Ethology
                Wiley-Blackwell
                01791613
                July 2012
                July 2012
                : 118
                : 7
                : 610-620
                Article
                10.1111/j.1439-0310.2012.02048.x
                © 2012

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