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      Description and biological notes of the larva of Cionus olivieri Rosenschoeld, 1838 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), with a comparison with other species of the tribe Cionini

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          Abstract

          The mature larva of Cionus olivieri Rosenschoeld, 1838 is described and illustrated in detail for the first time. It is compared with those known from the same genus and other genera in the tribe Cionini and with those of the hypothesized sister tribe Mecinini in the Curculioninae . The larvae of Cionus have three distinctive diagnostic features: the reduced number of setae on the epicranium (only two or three des and one or two fs) and on the epipharyngeal lining (only two als, two ams, and no mes); i.e., distinctly fewer than the most frequent number of setae in weevils, and mandibles dentate or angulate internally near the base. If considered together with Stereonychus Suffrian, 1854, the other genus of Cionini with larvae studied in detail, it is preliminarily suggested that mature larvae of this tribe might be characterized by six main diagnostic features: (1) labial palpi one-segmented, (2) labral rods absent, (3) pedal areas swollen to form large lobes or prolegs, (4) mandible with sharp apical teeth, (5) reduced number of fs on frons, only one or two fs, and (6) reduced number of epipharyngeal setae (two or three als and two or three ams, but no mes). It was noticed that C. helleri Reitter, 1904 from Japan, a very distinct species in the genus for some characters of the adult, also possesses distinctive characters in the larva which are uncommon among known cionines. New biological data on C. olivieri with the discovery of its host plant, Verbascum songaricum ( Scrophulariaceae ), in central Asia are also reported.

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          Immatures of Palaearctic species of the weevil genus Sibinia (Coleoptera, Curculionidae): new descriptions and new bionomic data with suggestions on their potential value in a phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus.

          The larvae and pupae of six species of the Palaearctic genus Sibinia Germar, 1817 are described in detail for the first time. Five of them develop in seeds of Caryophyllaceae and belong to Sibinia (s. str.): S. attalica Gyllenhal, 1835; S. femoralis Germar, 1824; S. tibialis Gyllenhal, 1835; and S. viscariae (Linnaeus, 1760), which are included in the S. femoralis group, and S. sicana Ragusa, 1908, which is included in the S. unicolor Fåhraeus, 1843 group. The sixth species is S. sodalis Germar, 1824, which develops in seeds of Plumbaginaceae and belongs to the subgenus Dichotychius Bedel, 1885. The larvae and pupae of these species are compared with those previously described for some species of the third subgenus, Microtychius Casey, 1910 from the Americas. Some larval characters, but no pupal ones, are useful to support the three subgenera and the two previously mentioned groups of Sibinia s. str., which were previously postulated based on a few adult morphological characters. The immatures of Sibinia are also compared with those of the closely related genus Tychius Germar, 1817, providing some distinctive characters between both genera. New bionomic data on larval and pupal development and adult emergence are reported for all the described species. These data suggest that species in this genus are highly homogeneous in life history traits.
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            Immatures of Palaearctic species of the weevil genus Sibinia (Coleoptera,
            Curculionidae): new descriptions and new bionomic data with suggestions on their potential value in a phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus

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              ON THE TAXONOMY OF RHYNCHOPHORA LARVAE (COLEOPTERA)

               Fritz Emden (1938)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                20 October 2020
                : 976
                : 131-145
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China
                [2 ] Center of Alpine Entomology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy University of Milan Milan Italy
                [3 ] Group Function of Invertebrate and Plant Biodiversity in Agro-Ecosystems, Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507, CZ-161 06 Praha 6 – Ruzyně, Czech Republic Crop Research Institute Prague Czech Republic
                [4 ] University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China
                Author notes

                Academic editor: M. Alonso-Zarazaga

                Article
                53930
                10.3897/zookeys.976.53930
                7591547
                Chunyan Jiang, Roberto Caldara, Jiri Skuhrovec, Runzhi Zhang

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Curculioididae
                Biogeography
                Asia

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