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      The Negative Impact of Higher Body Mass Index on Sperm Quality and Erectile Function: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Chinese Males of Infertile Couples

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          Abstract

          The objective of the current study was to explore the role of body mass index (BMI) in sperm quality and erectile function in Chinese males of infertile couples. A total of 28 fertility centers in different regions of China were enrolled. Patient data were collected from June 1, 2017, through October 31, 2017. Semen analyses and demographic data were collected and the five-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire was used to evaluate the erectile function in participants with different BMIs. In total, 3,174 Chinese men of infertile couples with an average age of 33.11 ± 6.08 years were enrolled. The occurrence of obesity, overweight, normal weight, and underweight were 5.4%, 36.6%, 56.8%, and 1.2%, respectively. In addition to hypertension and diabetes, primary infertility, a longer course of infertility, and chronic prostatitis were risk factors for obesity. Compared with men of normal weight, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for men with obesity, overweight, and underweight for semen volume <2 ml were 2.53 (95% CI [1.61, 3.97]), 1.33 (95% CI [1.09, 1.62]), and 0.84 (95% CI [0.29, 2.43]); for sperm progressive motility (A + B) (%) <32, the ORs were 1.60 (95% CI [1.16, 2.22]), 1.30 (95% CI [1.12, 1.51]), and 1.03 (95% CI [0.54, 1.98]); and for IIEF-5 ≤ 21, the ORs were 1.52 (95% CI [1.10, 2.10]), 1.11 (95% CI [0.96, 1.30]), and 0.62 (95% CI [0.31, 1.26]), respectively. Obesity was associated with lower semen volume, lower sperm motility, and erectile dysfunction in Chinese males of infertile couples.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Obesity.

          Excess bodyweight is the sixth most important risk factor contributing to the overall burden of disease worldwide. 1.1 billion adults and 10% of children are now classified as overweight or obese. Average life expectancy is already diminished; the main adverse consequences are cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and several cancers. The complex pathological processes reflect environmental and genetic interactions, and individuals from disadvantaged communities seem to have greater risks than more affluent individuals partly because of fetal and postnatal imprinting. Obesity, with its array of comorbidities, necessitates careful clinical assessment to identify underlying factors and to allow coherent management. The epidemic reflects progressive secular and age-related decreases in physical activity, together with substantial dietary changes with passive over-consumption of energy despite the neurobiological processes controlling food intake. Effective long-term weight loss depends on permanent changes in dietary quality, energy intake, and activity. Neither the medical management nor the societal preventive challenges are currently being met.
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            Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study.

            We provide current, normative data on the prevalence of impotence, and its physiological and psychosocial correlates in a general population using results from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. The Massachusetts Male Aging Study was a community based, random sample observational survey of noninstitutionalized men 40 to 70 years old conducted from 1987 to 1989 in cities and towns near Boston, Massachusetts. Blood samples, physiological measures, socio-demographic variables, psychological indexes, and information on health status, medications, smoking and lifestyle were collected by trained interviewers in the subject's home. A self-administered sexual activity questionnaire was used to characterize erectile potency. The combined prevalence of minimal, moderate and complete impotence was 52%. The prevalence of complete impotence tripled from 5 to 15% between subject ages 40 and 70 years. Subject age was the variable most strongly associated with impotence. After adjustment for age, a higher probability of impotence was directly correlated with heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, associated medications, and indexes of anger and depression, and inversely correlated with serum dehydroepiandrosterone, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and an index of dominant personality. Cigarette smoking was associated with a greater probability of complete impotence in men with heart disease and hypertension. We conclude that impotence is a major health concern in light of the high prevalence, is strongly associated with age, has multiple determinants, including some risk factors for vascular disease, and may be due partly to modifiable para-aging phenomena.
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              Epigenome-wide association study of body mass index, and the adverse outcomes of adiposity

              Summary Overweight and obesity affect ~1.5 billion people worldwide, and are major risk factors for type-2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease and related metabolic and inflammatory disturbances.1,2 Although the mechanisms linking adiposity to its clinical sequelae are poorly understood, recent studies suggest that adiposity may influence DNA methylation,3–6 a key regulator of gene expression and molecular phenotype.7 Here we use epigenome-wide association to show that body mass index (BMI, a key measure of adiposity) is associated with widespread changes in DNA methylation (187 genetic loci at P<1x10-7, range P=9.2x10-8 to 6.0x10-46; N=10,261 samples). Genetic association analyses demonstrate that the alterations in DNA methylation are predominantly the consequence of adiposity, rather than the cause. We find the methylation loci are enriched for functional genomic features in multiple tissues (P<0.05), and show that sentinel methylation markers identify gene expression signatures at 38 loci (P<9.0x10-6, range P=5.5x10-6 to 6.1x10-35, N=1,785 samples). The methylation loci identified highlight genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, substrate transport, and inflammatory pathways. Finally, we show that the disturbances in DNA methylation predict future type-2 diabetes (relative risk per 1SD increase in Methylation Risk Score: 2.3 [2.07-2.56]; P=1.1x10-54). Our results provide new insights into the biologic pathways influenced by adiposity, and may enable development of new strategies for prediction and prevention of type-2 diabetes and other adverse clinical consequences of obesity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Am J Mens Health
                Am J Mens Health
                JMH
                spjmh
                American Journal of Men's Health
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                1557-9883
                1557-9891
                02 January 2019
                Jan-Feb 2019
                : 13
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Urology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
                [2 ]Department of Urology, Affiliated Hospital of the Qingdao University, Qingdao, China
                [3 ]National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China
                Author notes
                Bin Yang, Department of Urology, Affiliated Hospital of the Qingdao University, Qingdao 266000, China. Email: yangbindoc@ 123456163.com
                Hongjun Li, Department of Urology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Beijing 100730, China Email: lihongjun@ 123456pumch.cn
                Article
                10.1177_1557988318822572
                10.1177/1557988318822572
                6440062
                30602337
                © The Author(s) 2019

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001809;
                Award ID: 81671448
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Beijing Municipality, FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100004826;
                Award ID: 7162152
                Categories
                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                January-February 2019

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