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      Cysteine supplementation reverses methionine restriction effects on rat adiposity: significance of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase

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          Abstract

          Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is a key enzyme in fatty acid and energy metabolism, but little is known about its nutritional regulation. Dietary methionine restriction in rats decreases hepatic Scd1 mRNA and protein, increases energy expenditure, and decreases fat-pad mass/body-weight% (FM/BW%). In humans, plasma concentrations of the methionine product, cysteine, are associated with obesity. To determine which consequences of methionine-restriction are mediated by decreased cysteine availability, we monitored obesity-related variables in 4 dietary groups for 12 weeks: control-fed (CF), methionine-restricted (MR), MR supplemented with 0.5% l-cysteine (MR+Cys) and CF+Cys rats. MR lowered weight gain and FM/BW% despite higher food intake/weight than CF, and lowered serum cysteine. Hepatic Scd1 expression was decreased, with decreased serum SCD1 activity indices (calculated from serum fatty acid profile), decreased serum insulin, leptin and triglycerides, and higher adiponectin. Cysteine supplementation (MR+Cys) essentially reversed all these phenotypes and raised serum cysteine but not methionine to CF levels. Adding extra cysteine to control diet (CF+Cys) increased serum taurine but did not affect serum cysteine, lipids, proteins, or total weight gain. FM/BW% and serum leptin were modestly decreased. Our results indicate that anti-obesity effects of MR are caused by low cysteine and that dietary sulfur amino acid composition contributes to SCD1 regulation.

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          Most cited references 53

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          The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review.

          For years, proponents of some fad diets have claimed that higher amounts of protein facilitate weight loss. Only in recent years have studies begun to examine the effects of high protein diets on energy expenditure, subsequent energy intake and weight loss as compared to lower protein diets. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of randomized investigations on the effects of high protein diets on dietary thermogenesis, satiety, body weight and fat loss. There is convincing evidence that a higher protein intake increases thermogenesis and satiety compared to diets of lower protein content. The weight of evidence also suggests that high protein meals lead to a reduced subsequent energy intake. Some evidence suggests that diets higher in protein result in an increased weight loss and fat loss as compared to diets lower in protein, but findings have not been consistent. In dietary practice, it may be beneficial to partially replace refined carbohydrate with protein sources that are low in saturated fat. Although recent evidence supports potential benefit, rigorous longer-term studies are needed to investigate the effects of high protein diets on weight loss and weight maintenance.
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            α-Hydroxybutyrate Is an Early Biomarker of Insulin Resistance and Glucose Intolerance in a Nondiabetic Population

            Background Insulin resistance is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease progression. Current diagnostic tests, such as glycemic indicators, have limitations in the early detection of insulin resistant individuals. We searched for novel biomarkers identifying these at-risk subjects. Methods Using mass spectrometry, non-targeted biochemical profiling was conducted in a cohort of 399 nondiabetic subjects representing a broad spectrum of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance (based on the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and oral glucose tolerance testing, respectively). Results Random forest statistical analysis selected α-hydroxybutyrate (α–HB) as the top-ranked biochemical for separating insulin resistant (lower third of the clamp-derived MFFM = 33 [12] µmol·min−1·kgFFM −1, median [interquartile range], n = 140) from insulin sensitive subjects (MFFM = 66 [23] µmol·min−1·kgFFM −1) with a 76% accuracy. By targeted isotope dilution assay, plasma α–HB concentrations were reciprocally related to MFFM; and by partition analysis, an α–HB value of 5 µg/ml was found to best separate insulin resistant from insulin sensitive subjects. α–HB also separated subjects with normal glucose tolerance from those with impaired fasting glycemia or impaired glucose tolerance independently of, and in an additive fashion to, insulin resistance. These associations were also independent of sex, age and BMI. Other metabolites from this global analysis that significantly correlated to insulin sensitivity included certain organic acid, amino acid, lysophospholipid, acylcarnitine and fatty acid species. Several metabolites are intermediates related to α-HB metabolism and biosynthesis. Conclusions α–hydroxybutyrate is an early marker for both insulin resistance and impaired glucose regulation. The underlying biochemical mechanisms may involve increased lipid oxidation and oxidative stress.
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              Low methionine ingestion by rats extends life span.

              Dietary energy restriction has been a widely used means of experimentally extending mammalian life span. We report here that lifelong reduction in the concentration of a single dietary component, the essential amino acid L-methionine, from 0.86 to 0.17% of the diet results in a 30% longer life span of male Fischer 344 rats. Methionine restriction completely abolished growth, although food intake was actually greater on a body weight basis. Studies of energy consumption in early life indicated that the energy intake of 0.17% methionine-fed animals was near normal for animals of their size, although consumption per animal was below that of the much larger 0.86% methionine-fed rats. Increasing the energy intake of rats fed 0.17% methionine failed to increase their rate of growth, whereas restricting 0.85% methionine-fed rats to the food intake of 0.17% methionine-fed animals did not materially reduce growth, indicating that food restriction was not a factor in life span extension in these experiments. The biochemically well-defined pathways of methionine metabolism and utilization offer the potential for uncovering the precise mechanism(s) underlying this specific dietary restriction-related extension of life span.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Lipid Res
                J. Lipid Res
                jlr
                Journal of Lipid Research
                The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
                0022-2275
                1539-7262
                January 2011
                January 2011
                January 2011
                : 52
                : 1
                : 104-112
                Affiliations
                [* ]Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford , Oxford, UK
                []Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria , Alexandria, Egypt
                [§ ]Cell Biology Laboratory, Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science, Inc. , Cold Spring-on-Hudson, NY
                [* ]Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo , Oslo, Norway
                Author notes
                [1 ]To whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: amany.elshorbagy@ 123456pharm.ox.ac.uk .
                Article
                m010215
                10.1194/jlr.M010215
                2999932
                20871132
                Copyright © 2011 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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