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      Novel Iodine nanoparticles target vascular mimicry in intracerebral triple negative human MDA-MB-231 breast tumors

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          Abstract

          Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), ~ 10–20% of diagnosed breast cancers, metastasizes to brain, lungs, liver. Iodine nanoparticle (INP) radioenhancers specifically localize to human TNBC MDA-MB-231 tumors growing in mouse brains after iv injection, significantly extending survival of mice after radiation therapy (RT). A prominent rim of INP contrast (MicroCT) previously seen in subcutaneous tumors but not intracerebral gliomas, provide calculated X-ray dose-enhancements up to > eightfold. Here, MDA-MB-231-cells, INPs, CD31 were examined by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Most INP staining co-localized with CD31 in the tumor center and periphery. Greatest INP/CD31 staining was in the tumor periphery, the region of increased MicroCT contrast. Tumor cells are seen to line irregularly-shaped spaces (ISS) with INP, CD31 staining very close to or on the tumor cell surface and PAS stain on their boundary and may represent a unique form of CD31-expressing vascular mimicry in intracerebral 231-tumors. INP/CD31 co-staining is also seen around ISS formed around tumor cells migrating on CD31 + blood-vessels. The significant radiation dose enhancement to the prolific collagen I containing, INP-binding ISS found throughout the tumor but concentrated in the tumor rim, may contribute significantly to the life extensions observed after INP-RT; VM could represent a new drug/NP, particularly INP, tumor-homing target.

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          Most cited references38

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          Vascular channel formation by human melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro: vasculogenic mimicry.

          Tissue sections from aggressive human intraocular (uveal) and metastatic cutaneous melanomas generally lack evidence of significant necrosis and contain patterned networks of interconnected loops of extracellular matrix. The matrix that forms these loops or networks may be solid or hollow. Red blood cells have been detected within the hollow channel components of this patterned matrix histologically, and these vascular channel networks have been detected in human tumors angiographically. Endothelial cells were not identified within these matrix-embedded channels by light microscopy, by transmission electron microscopy, or by using an immunohistochemical panel of endothelial cell markers (Factor VIII-related antigen, Ulex, CD31, CD34, and KDR[Flk-1]). Highly invasive primary and metastatic human melanoma cells formed patterned solid and hollow matrix channels (seen in tissue sections of aggressive primary and metastatic human melanomas) in three-dimensional cultures containing Matrigel or dilute Type I collagen, without endothelial cells or fibroblasts. These tumor cell-generated patterned channels conducted dye, highlighting looping patterns visualized angiographically in human tumors. Neither normal melanocytes nor poorly invasive melanoma cells generated these patterned channels in vitro under identical culture conditions, even after the addition of conditioned medium from metastatic pattern-forming melanoma cells, soluble growth factors, or regimes of hypoxia. Highly invasive and metastatic human melanoma cells, but not poorly invasive melanoma cells, contracted and remodeled floating hydrated gels, providing a biomechanical explanation for the generation of microvessels in vitro. cDNA microarray analysis of highly invasive versus poorly invasive melanoma tumor cells confirmed a genetic reversion to a pluripotent embryonic-like genotype in the highly aggressive melanoma cells. These observations strongly suggest that aggressive melanoma cells may generate vascular channels that facilitate tumor perfusion independent of tumor angiogenesis.
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            Role of Extracellular Matrix in Development and Cancer Progression

            The immense diversity of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins confers distinct biochemical and biophysical properties that influence cell phenotype. The ECM is highly dynamic as it is constantly deposited, remodelled, and degraded during development until maturity to maintain tissue homeostasis. The ECM’s composition and organization are spatiotemporally regulated to control cell behaviour and differentiation, but dysregulation of ECM dynamics leads to the development of diseases such as cancer. The chemical cues presented by the ECM have been appreciated as key drivers for both development and cancer progression. However, the mechanical forces present due to the ECM have been largely ignored but recently recognized to play critical roles in disease progression and malignant cell behaviour. Here, we review the ways in which biophysical forces of the microenvironment influence biochemical regulation and cell phenotype during key stages of human development and cancer progression.
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              Iron oxide nanoparticles: Diagnostic, therapeutic and theranostic applications

              Many different iron oxide nanoparticles have been evaluated over the years, for many different biomedical applications. We here summarize the synthesis, surface functionalization and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their (pre-) clinical use in diagnostic, therapeutic and theranostic settings. Diagnostic applications include liver, lymph node, inflammation and vascular imaging, employing mostly magnetic resonance imaging but recently also magnetic particle imaging. Therapeutic applications encompass iron supplementation in anemia and advanced cancer treatments, such as modulation of macrophage polarization, magnetic fluid hyperthermia and magnetic drug targeting. Because of their properties, iron oxide nanoparticles are particularly useful for theranostic purposes. Examples of such setups, in which diagnosis and therapy are intimately combined and in which iron oxide nanoparticles are used, are image-guided drug delivery, image-guided and microbubble-mediated opening of the blood-brain barrier, and theranostic tissue engineering. Together, these directions highlight the versatility and the broad applicability of iron oxide nanoparticles, and they indicate that multiple iron oxide nanoparticle-based materials will be integrated in future medical practice.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                smilowitz@uchc.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                13 January 2021
                13 January 2021
                2021
                : 11
                : 1203
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.208078.5, ISNI 0000000419370394, Department of Cell Biology, , University of Connecticut Health Center, ; 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030 USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.281323.9, ISNI 0000 0004 0548 0605, Nanoprobes, Inc., ; 95 Horseblock Road, Yaphank, NY 11980 USA
                Article
                80862
                10.1038/s41598-020-80862-5
                7806637
                33441981
                da0131d8-6df5-4db1-bc99-521d63118919
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 27 April 2020
                : 23 December 2020
                Funding
                Funded by: Connecticut Brain Tumor Alliance
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Uncategorized
                breast cancer,cancer,cns cancer,experimental models of disease,translational research

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