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      Prevalence of osteoarthritis in individuals with COPD: a systematic review

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          The objective of this review was to examine the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) in individuals with COPD. A computer-based literature search of CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO and Embase databases was performed. Studies reporting the prevalence of OA among a cohort of individuals with COPD were included. The sample size varied across the studies from 27 to 52,643 with a total number of 101,399 individuals with COPD recruited from different countries. The mean age ranged from 59 to 76 years. The prevalence rates of OA among individuals with COPD were calculated as weighted means. A total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria with a prevalence ranging from 12% to 74% and an overall weighted mean of 35.5%. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of OA is high among individuals with COPD and should be considered when developing and applying interventions in this population.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with important chronic comorbid diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension. The present study analysed data from 20,296 subjects aged > or =45 yrs at baseline in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). The sample was stratified based on baseline lung function data, according to modified Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. Comorbid disease at baseline and death and hospitalisations over a 5-yr follow-up were then searched for. Lung function impairment was found to be associated with more comorbid disease. In logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, body mass index and education, subjects with GOLD stage 3 or 4 COPD had a higher prevalence of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.9), hypertension (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9) and cardiovascular disease (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.0). Comorbid disease was associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality that was worse in people with impaired lung function. Lung function impairment is associated with a higher risk of comorbid disease, which contributes to a higher risk of adverse outcomes of mortality and hospitalisations.
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            In inflammatory conditions such as RA, the neutrophil has tended to be dismissed as a short-lived, terminally differentiated, irrelevant bystander cell. However, this is clearly not the case. A better understanding of the complex heterogeneous pathways and processes that constitute RA, in parallel with a more sophisticated knowledge of neutrophil biology has identified many potential roles for these cells in the persistence of inflammation and progression of joint damage, which should not be underestimated. Not only are neutrophils found in high numbers within the rheumatoid joint, both in synovial tissue and in joint fluid, they have a huge potential to directly inflict damage to tissue, bone and cartilage via the secretion of proteases and toxic oxygen metabolites, as well as driving inflammation through antigen presentation and secretion of cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins and leucotrienes. Drugs already used to treat RA down-regulate many neutrophil functions, including migration to the joint, degranulation and production of inflammatory mediators, and these cells should be considered as important targets for the development of new therapies in the future.
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              Body composition and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              Survival studies have consistently shown significantly greater mortality rates in underweight and normal-weight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than in overweight and obese COPD patients. To compare the contributions of low fat-free mass and low fat mass to mortality, we assessed the association between body composition and mortality in COPD. We studied 412 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD [Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GOLD) stages II-IV, forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 36 +/- 14% of predicted (range: 19-70%). Body composition was assessed by using single-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Body mass index, fat-free mass index, fat mass index, and skeletal muscle index were calculated and related to recently developed reference values. COPD patients were stratified into defined categories of tissue-depletion pattern. Overall mortality was assessed at the end of follow-up. Semistarvation and muscle atrophy were equally distributed among disease stages, but the highest prevalence of cachexia was seen in GOLD stage IV. Forty-six percent of the patients (n = 189) died during a maximum follow-up of 5 y. Cox regression models, with and without adjustment for disease severity, showed that fat-free mass index (relative risk: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.96; P = 0.003) was an independent predictor of survival, but fat mass index was not. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression plots for cachexia and muscle atrophy did not differ significantly. Fat-free mass is an independent predictor of mortality irrespective of fat mass. This study supports the inclusion of body-composition assessment as a systemic marker of disease severity in COPD staging.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                16 April 2018
                : 13
                : 1207-1216
                [1 ]Respiratory Medicine, West Park Healthcare Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada
                [2 ]Rehabilitation Sciences Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
                [3 ]Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
                [4 ]Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
                [5 ]Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dina Brooks, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, 160-500 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1V7, Canada, Tel +1 416 978 1739, Fax +1 416 946 8562, Email dina.brooks@
                © 2018 Wshah et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.


                Respiratory medicine

                pulmonary rehabilitation, comorbidities, prevalence, osteoarthritis, copd


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