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      Household food insecurity and hunger status in Debre Berhan town, Central Ethiopia: Community-based cross-sectional study


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          Food security occurs when all people have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that fits their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life at all times. There is limited evidence on this topic and not well studied in Ethiopia.


          This study aimed to investigate food insecurity and hunger status among households (HHs) in Debre Berhan town, Ethiopia.


          A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken from 1 January 2017 to 30 January 2017. A simple random sampling technique was used to enroll 395 HHs for the study. An interviewer-administered, structured, and pretested questionnaire was used to collect data through a face-to-face interview. The household food security and hunger status were assessed by using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and the Household Hunger Scale, respectively. Data were entered and cleaned using Epiata 3.1 and exported to SPSS software version 20 for statistical analysis. Logistic regression was fitted, and an odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and a value of p of less than 0.05 were used to identify factors associated with food insecurity.


          A total of 377 HHs participated in the study with a response rate of 95.4%. The proportion of households with food insecurity was 32.4%, among which mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity accounted for 10.3, 18.8, and 3.2%, respectively. The mean score of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale was 1.88 ± 3.5. Hunger occurred among 3.2% of households. The mean score of the Household Hunger Scale was 2.17 ± 1.03. Husband or male cohabitant’s occupation (AOR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.31–5.48) and wife or female cohabitant’s literacy (AOR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.01– 9.55) were the only factors associated with HH food insecurity.


          HH food insecurity and hunger in Debre Berhan town were unacceptably high, which can hamper achieving national targets for food security, nutrition, and health. Intensified efforts are further needed to accelerate the decline in food insecurity and hunger prevalence. Therefore, interventions need to target self-employed merchants in small businesses and women who are uneducated.

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          Most cited references36

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          Prevalence of Household-level Food Insecurity and Its Determinants in an Urban Resettlement Colony in North India

          ABSTRACT An adequate food intake, in terms of quantity and quality, is a key to healthy life. Malnutrition is the most serious consequence of food insecurity and has a multitude of health and economic implications. India has the world's largest population living in slums, and these have largely been underserved areas. The State of Food Insecurity in the World (2012) estimates that India is home to more than 217 million undernourished people. Various studies have been conducted to assess food insecurity at the global level; however, the literature is limited as far as India is concerned. The present study was conducted with the objective of documenting the prevalence of food insecurity at the household level and the factors determining its existence in an urban slum population of northern India. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of South Delhi, India. A pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting socioeconomic details and information regarding dietary practices. Food insecurity was assessed using Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with food insecurity. A total of 250 women were interviewed through house-to-house survey. Majority of the households were having a nuclear family (61.6%), with mean family-size being 5.5 (SD±2.5) and the mean monthly household income being INR 9,784 (SD±631). Nearly half (53.3%) of the mean monthly household income was spent on food. The study found that a total of 77.2% households were food-insecure, with 49.2% households being mildly food-insecure, 18.8% of the households being moderately food-insecure, and 9.2% of the households being severely food-insecure. Higher education of the women handling food (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.92; p≤0.03) and number of earning members in the household (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.98; p≤0.04) were associated with lesser chance/odds of being food-insecure. The study demonstrated a high prevalence of food insecurity in the marginalized section of the urban society. The Government of India needs to adopt urgent measures to combat this problem.
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            Factors affecting household food security in rural northern hinterland of Pakistan

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              Household food insecurity and hunger among households in Sidama district, southern Ethiopia.

              To examine household food insecurity and hunger in Sidama Zone, one of the most populous zones in southern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional survey administered individually by trained interviewers. Food insecurity was calculated with both the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and the Household Hunger Scale (HHS), developed by the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project. Rural households from ten kebeles (the smallest administrative district) selected from two agro-climatic zones in Sidama, southern Ethiopia, from December 2010 to January 2011. Men and women respondents from 1094 rural households were selected using multistage sampling techniques. Using the HFIAS, 17·7 % of households were food secure. The percentage of households that were mildly, moderately and severely food insecure was 6·8 %, 27·7 % and 47·8 %, respectively. Using the HHS, 29·0 % and 5·6 % of households fell into the moderate and severe household hunger categories. Using multivariate statistical techniques, five variables were significant predictors of both food insecurity and hunger. These variables were migration of a household member, agro-climatic zone, and younger age, less education and lower radio access for the woman. Being eligible for safety-net credit programmes also was a predictor of hunger, while limited animal ownership and household wealth as well as alcohol use by the household head added to the prediction of food insecurity. The study documented that food insecurity is a major concern of smallholder farming households in the study area. A substantial majority of the households were facing mild to severe food insecurity and hunger for an extended period of time.

                Author and article information

                Front Nutr
                Front Nutr
                Front. Nutr.
                Frontiers in Nutrition
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                16 March 2023
                : 10
                [1] 1School of Public Health, St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [2] 2Department of Public Health, College of Health Science, Debre Birhan University , Debre Berhan, Amhara, Ethiopia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Clinton Beckford, University of Windsor, Canada

                Reviewed by: Emyr Reisha Isaura, Airlangga University, Indonesia; Olutosin Ademola Otekunrin, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria

                *Correspondence: Takele Gezahegn Demie, takele.gez44@ 123456gmail.com

                ORCID: Takele Gezahegn Demie https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6296-7706

                This article was submitted to Nutritional Epidemiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Nutrition

                Copyright © 2023 Demie and Gessese.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 02 September 2022
                : 10 February 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 39, Pages: 10, Words: 6070
                Original Research

                food insecurity status,household food insecurity access scale,hunger status category,nutrition,debre berhan,central ethiopia


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