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      Dryness Symptoms, Diagnostic Protocol and Therapeutic Management: A Report on 1,200 Patients

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          Purpose: To report the diagnostic and therapeutic data obtained from 1,200 patients suffering from dry eye symptoms not due to Sjögren’s syndrome or other auto-immune diseases. Methods: Schirmer test I, ferning test, breakup time, vital dye staining, brush and imprint cytology were performed; data were grouped into diagnostic profiles, and the therapy was prescribed according to these. Results: Eight diagnostic profiles were identified. Dry eye was diagnosed in 57.1% of patients; the remaining 42.9% were found to suffer from eye discomfort or conjunctivitis of different aetiologies. Conclusions: Subjective symptoms of dryness can hide diseases other than dry eye; combined clinical and laboratory tests are requested to make a diagnosis. Our experience indicates that a therapy prescribed on the basis of diagnostic profiles provides relief in 79.1% of cases.

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          Eye Discomfort and Air Pollution

          Discomfort eye syndrome (DES) comprises a series of ‘minor’ subjective symptoms in patients where no relevant clinical signs are observed suggesting ocular disease. Our study includes 100 DES patients, excluding video terminal users, selected from the First Aid Service of our Department over two peak periods in both winter and summer time. The Schirmer test I, ferning test, breakup time and conjunctival cytology (scraping and imprint) were performed and data were related to sex, age and air pollution indexes, recorded in the patients’ living zones. Our results demonstrate that: (i) the ocular surface cytology and the analysis of tear film changes provide significant information in those patients where no other clinical signs are evident; (ii) DES symptoms are more frequent in women than in men (ratio about 2:1), both with ages over 51 years; (iii) DES is significantly associated with ocular surface inflammation, as detected by cytological methods, and (iv) ocular surface subclinical inflammation and ocular dryness are related to high concentrations of atmospheric polluters, in both sexes.

            Author and article information

            Ophthalmic Res
            Ophthalmic Research
            S. Karger AG
            August 2001
            19 July 2001
            : 33
            : 4
            : 221-227
            Centre of Biotechnological and Clinical Research in Ophthalmology, University of Bologna, Italy
            55674 Ophthalmic Res 2001;33:221–227
            © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Page count
            Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 28, Pages: 7
            Original Paper


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