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      Dryness Symptoms, Diagnostic Protocol and Therapeutic Management: A Report on 1,200 Patients

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          Abstract

          Purpose: To report the diagnostic and therapeutic data obtained from 1,200 patients suffering from dry eye symptoms not due to Sjögren’s syndrome or other auto-immune diseases. Methods: Schirmer test I, ferning test, breakup time, vital dye staining, brush and imprint cytology were performed; data were grouped into diagnostic profiles, and the therapy was prescribed according to these. Results: Eight diagnostic profiles were identified. Dry eye was diagnosed in 57.1% of patients; the remaining 42.9% were found to suffer from eye discomfort or conjunctivitis of different aetiologies. Conclusions: Subjective symptoms of dryness can hide diseases other than dry eye; combined clinical and laboratory tests are requested to make a diagnosis. Our experience indicates that a therapy prescribed on the basis of diagnostic profiles provides relief in 79.1% of cases.

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          Eye Discomfort and Air Pollution

          Discomfort eye syndrome (DES) comprises a series of ‘minor’ subjective symptoms in patients where no relevant clinical signs are observed suggesting ocular disease. Our study includes 100 DES patients, excluding video terminal users, selected from the First Aid Service of our Department over two peak periods in both winter and summer time. The Schirmer test I, ferning test, breakup time and conjunctival cytology (scraping and imprint) were performed and data were related to sex, age and air pollution indexes, recorded in the patients’ living zones. Our results demonstrate that: (i) the ocular surface cytology and the analysis of tear film changes provide significant information in those patients where no other clinical signs are evident; (ii) DES symptoms are more frequent in women than in men (ratio about 2:1), both with ages over 51 years; (iii) DES is significantly associated with ocular surface inflammation, as detected by cytological methods, and (iv) ocular surface subclinical inflammation and ocular dryness are related to high concentrations of atmospheric polluters, in both sexes.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            ORE
            Ophthalmic Res
            10.1159/issn.0030-3747
            Ophthalmic Research
            S. Karger AG
            0030-3747
            1423-0259
            2001
            August 2001
            19 July 2001
            : 33
            : 4
            : 221-227
            Affiliations
            Centre of Biotechnological and Clinical Research in Ophthalmology, University of Bologna, Italy
            Article
            55674 Ophthalmic Res 2001;33:221–227
            10.1159/000055674
            11464075
            © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 28, Pages: 7
            Categories
            Original Paper

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