In obesity, growth hormone (GH) secretion is impaired which is considered a consequence rather than a cause of obesity. GH regulates the expression of GH receptor and the synthesis of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in adipocytes. Although GH hyposecretion in obesity may decrease the generation of IGF-I in each adipocyte, increased amounts of IGF-I and GH-binding protein could be secreted from the excessively enlarged amounts of adipose tissue. This may contribute to the normal/high serum-IGF-I and high GH-binding protein levels in obesity. Hyperinsulinemia and increased GH receptor activity may also affect the GH-IGF-I axis. Favorable effects of GH treatment have been observed in obese children and adults. GH treatment decreases adiposity, reduces triglyceride accumulation by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase and enhances lipolysis both via increased hormone-sensitive lipase activity and via induction of beta adrenoreceptors. GH treatment also has a favorable effect on obesity-associated dyslipidemia, but the effects on insulin sensitivity have been conflicting.