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      Predictors of Hypophosphatemia and Outcomes during Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

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          Introduction: Hypophosphatemia occurs in up to 80% of patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and has been associated with poor outcomes. Whether preemptive phosphate supplementation is warranted in select patients has not been adequately explored. This single-center, retrospective cohort study evaluates predictors of hypophosphatemia and characterizes treatment approaches in adult patients undergoing at least 12 h of CRRT. Methods: Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of hypophosphatemia as defined by serum phosphorus <2.5 mg/dL. Select laboratory values at baseline and during CRRT, medications and nutritional sources affecting phosphorus, and CRRT parameters were compared. Patient outcomes including resolution of acute kidney injury (AKI), freedom from renal replacement therapy at hospital discharge, duration of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU mortality were evaluated. Results: Seventy-two patients were included. The group was 43% female and 51% African American. CRRT was ordered for AKI in 83% and for end-stage renal disease in 15%. Hypophosphatemia occurred in 45 patients (63%). Mean time to development of hypophosphatemia was 34 ± 22 h. Patients who developed hypophosphatemia received a longer duration of CRRT ( p = 0.001), were more likely to have a diet ordered ( p = 0.005), less likely to have received calcium infusions ( p = 0.045), and had lower phosphorus ( p = 0.017) and potassium levels ( p = 0.038) and higher calcium levels at baseline ( p = 0.048). Development of hypophosphatemia was associated with an increased duration of ICU stay ( p = 0.014) but not with the other patient outcomes evaluated. Twenty-seven of the 45 patients (60%) who developed hypophosphatemia received phosphorus supplementation with near equal use of intravenous, oral, and combination routes. Only 17 patients (38%) achieved resolution of hypophosphatemia while on CRRT. Conclusion: Hypophosphatemia is common, difficult to correct, and contributes to longer ICU stays in patients requiring CRRT. A preemptive approach to address hypophosphatemia including aggressive supplementation strategies to correct phosphorus is warranted in patients requiring CRRT.

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          Author and article information

          Blood Purif
          Blood Purification
          S. Karger AG
          November 2020
          22 April 2020
          : 49
          : 6
          : 700-707
          aDepartment of Pharmacy, Methodist Le Bonheur Healthcare University Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
          bDepartments of Medicine (Nephrology) and Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
          cDepartments of Clinical Pharmacy and Translational Science and Medicine (Nephrology), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
          Author notes
          *Joanna Q. Hudson, Departments of Clinical Pharmacy and Translational Science and Medicine (Nephrology)University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 881 Madison, Room 334, Memphis, TN 38163 (USA), E-Mail
          507421 Blood Purif 2020;49:700–707
          © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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          Page count
          Tables: 4, Pages: 8
          Research Article


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