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      Human stem cell delivery for treatment of large segmental bone defects

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          Abstract

          Local or systemic stem cell delivery has the potential to promote repair of a variety of damaged or degenerated tissues. Although various stem cell sources have been investigated for bone repair, few comparative reports exist, and cellular distribution and viability postimplantation remain key issues. In this study, we quantified the ability of tissue-engineered constructs containing either human fetal or adult stem cells to enhance functional repair of nude rat critically sized femoral defects. After 12 weeks, defects treated with cell-seeded polymer scaffolds had significantly higher bone ingrowth and torsional strength compared to those receiving acellular scaffolds, although there were no significant differences between the cell sources. Next, stem cells were labeled with fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) in an attempt to noninvasively track their distribution after delivery on scaffolds. Clear fluorescence was observed at implantation sites throughout the study; however, beginning 7-10 days after surgery, signals were also observed at contralateral sites treated with acellular QD-free scaffolds. Although immunostaining for human nuclei revealed retention of some cells at the implantation site, no human cells were detected in the control limb defects. Additional histological analysis of implantation and control defect tissues revealed macrophages containing endocytosed QDs. Furthermore, QD-labeling appeared to diminish transplanted cell function resulting in reduced healing responses. In summary, augmentation of polymeric scaffolds with stem cells derived from fetal and adult tissues significantly enhanced healing of large segmental bone defects; however, QD labeling of stem cells eliminated the observed therapeutic effect and failed to conclusively track stem cell location long-term in vivo.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Semiconductor Clusters, Nanocrystals, and Quantum Dots

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            Osteogenic differentiation of purified, culture-expanded human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

            Human bone marrow contains a population of cells capable of differentiating along multiple mesenchymal cell lineages. Recently, techniques for the purification and culture-expansion of these human marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been developed. The goals of the current study were to establish a reproducible system for the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs, and to characterize the effect of changes in the microenvironment upon the process. MSCs derived from 2nd or 3rd passage were cultured for 16 days in various base media containing 1 to 1000 nM dexamethasone (Dex), 0.01 to 4 mM L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (AsAP) or 0.25 mM ascorbic acid, and 1 to 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP). Optimal osteogenic differentiation, as determined by osteoblastic morphology, expression of alkaline phosphatase (APase), reactivity with anti-osteogenic cell surface monoclonal antibodies, modulation of osteocalcin mRNA production, and the formation of a mineralized extracellular matrix containing hydroxyapatite was achieved with DMEM base medium plus 100 nM Dex, 0.05 mM AsAP, and 10 mM beta GP. The formation of a continuously interconnected network of APase-positive cells and mineralized matrix supports the characterization of this progenitor population as homogeneous. While higher initial seeding densities did not affect cell number of APase activity, significantly more mineral was deposited in these cultures, suggesting that events which occur early in the differentiation process are linked to end-stage phenotypic expression. Furthermore, cultures allowed to concentrate their soluble products in the media produced more mineralized matrix, thereby implying a role for autocrine or paracrine factors synthesized by human MSCs undergoing osteoblastic lineage progression. This culture system is responsive to subtle manipulations including the basal nutrient medium, dose of physiologic supplements, cell seeding density, and volume of tissue culture medium. Cultured human MSCs provide a useful model for evaluating the multiple factors responsible for the step-wise progression of cells from undifferentiated precursors to secretory osteoblasts, and eventually terminally differentiated osteocytes.
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              Noninvasive imaging of quantum dots in mice.

              Quantum dots having four different surface coatings were tested for use in in vivo imaging. Localization was successfully monitored by fluorescence imaging of living animals, by necropsy, by frozen tissue sections for optical microscopy, and by electron microscopy, on scales ranging from centimeters to nanometers, using only quantum dots for detection. Circulating half-lives were found to be less than 12 min for amphiphilic poly(acrylic acid), short-chain (750 Da) methoxy-PEG or long-chain (3400 Da) carboxy-PEG quantum dots, but approximately 70 min for long-chain (5000 Da) methoxy-PEG quantum dots. Surface coatings also determined the in vivo localization of the quantum dots. Long-term experiments demonstrated that these quantum dots remain fluorescent after at least four months in vivo.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                February 23 2010
                February 23 2010
                February 23 2010
                January 19 2010
                : 107
                : 8
                : 3305-3310
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.0905444107
                2840521
                20133731
                © 2010

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