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      High Relative Expression of Pannexin 3 (PANX3) in an Axillary Sweat Gland Carcinoma With Osteosarcomatous Transformation :

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          Integrative Analysis Reveals Relationships of Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations in Osteosarcoma

          Background Osteosarcomas are the most common non-haematological primary malignant tumours of bone, and all conventional osteosarcomas are high-grade tumours showing complex genomic aberrations. We have integrated genome-wide genetic and epigenetic profiles from the EuroBoNeT panel of 19 human osteosarcoma cell lines based on microarray technologies. Principal Findings The cell lines showed complex patterns of DNA copy number changes, where genomic copy number gains were significantly associated with gene-rich regions and losses with gene-poor regions. By integrating the datasets, 350 genes were identified as having two types of aberrations (gain/over-expression, hypo-methylation/over-expression, loss/under-expression or hyper-methylation/under-expression) using a recurrence threshold of 6/19 (>30%) cell lines. The genes showed in general alterations in either DNA copy number or DNA methylation, both within individual samples and across the sample panel. These 350 genes are involved in embryonic skeletal system development and morphogenesis, as well as remodelling of extracellular matrix. The aberrations of three selected genes, CXCL5, DLX5 and RUNX2, were validated in five cell lines and five tumour samples using PCR techniques. Several genes were hyper-methylated and under-expressed compared to normal osteoblasts, and expression could be reactivated by demethylation using 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment for four genes tested; AKAP12, CXCL5, EFEMP1 and IL11RA. Globally, there was as expected a significant positive association between gain and over-expression, loss and under-expression as well as hyper-methylation and under-expression, but gain was also associated with hyper-methylation and under-expression, suggesting that hyper-methylation may oppose the effects of increased copy number for detrimental genes. Conclusions Integrative analysis of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic alterations identified dependencies and relationships between DNA copy number, DNA methylation and mRNA expression in osteosarcomas, contributing to better understanding of osteosarcoma biology.
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            Pannexin channels and their links to human disease.

            In less than a decade, a small family of channel-forming glycoproteins, named pannexins, have captured the interest of many biologists, in large part due to their association with common diseases, ranging from cancers to neuropathies to infectious diseases. Although the pannexin family consists of only three members (Panx1, Panx2 and Panx3), one or more of these pannexins are expressed in virtually every mammalian organ, implicating their potential role in a diverse array of pathophysiologies. Panx1 is the most extensively studied, but features of this pannexin must be cautiously extrapolated to the other pannexins, as for example we now know that Panx2, unlike Panx1, exhibits unique properties such as a tendency to be retained within intracellular compartments. In the present review, we assess the biochemical and channel features of pannexins focusing on the literature which links these unique molecules to over a dozen diseases and syndromes. Although no germ-line mutations in genes encoding pannexins have been linked to any diseases, many cases have shown that high pannexin expression is associated with disease onset and/or progression. Disease may also occur, however, when pannexins are underexpressed, highlighting that pannexin expression must be exquisitely regulated. Finally, we discuss some of the most pressing questions and controversies in the pannexin field as the community seeks to uncover the full biological relevance of pannexins in healthy organs and during disease.
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              Current management approach to hidradenocarcinoma: a comprehensive review of the literature

              Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare malignant adnexal tumour which arises from the intradermal duct of eccrine sweat glands. The head and neck are the most common sites of hidradenocarcinoma, but rarely it can occur on the extremities. As it is an aggressive tumour, regional lymph nodes and distant viscera are the most common sites of metastasis. Diagnosis is confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Hidradenocarcinoma should be differentiated from benign and malignant adnexal tumours. Being an aggressive and rare tumour, no uniform treatment guidelines have been documented so far for metastatic hidradenocarcinoma. Wide local excision is the mainstay of the treatment, but because of high local recurrence, radiotherapy in a dose of 50Gy–70Gy and/or 5-fluorouracil and capecitabine-based combination chemotherapy may be given to further improve local control. Other treatment strategies are targeted therapies like trastuzumab, EGFR inhibitors, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors, hormonal agents like antiandrogens, electrochemotherapy, or clinical trials.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The American Journal of Dermatopathology
                The American Journal of Dermatopathology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0193-1091
                2016
                November 2016
                : 38
                : 11
                : 846-851
                Article
                10.1097/DAD.0000000000000583
                df88b03b-dde9-4bb7-96a8-938b1092895c
                © 2016

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