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      Isotropic incorporation of SPD-5 underlies centrosome assembly in C. elegans

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      Current Biology

      Cell Press

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          Summary

          Centrosomes are important regulators of microtubule organization in animal cells. Within the centrosome, microtubule nucleation and anchorage are mediated by proteins in the pericentriolar material (PCM) that accumulates around centrioles. The spatial organization of the PCM and the contribution of centrioles to its recruitment remain poorly understood. Previous work in the Drosophila embryo showed that the key PCM component Cnn specifically incorporates near centrioles, suggesting that centrioles play an ongoing role in PCM assembly [1]. It is currently unclear whether this model holds true in other organisms. Here, we examine PCM dynamics in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. We find that recruitment of the scaffold component SPD-5 occurs throughout the PCM. Incorporation of additional PCM subunits is therefore not limited to specific nucleation sites near centrioles, which has profound implications for the organization of the PCM lattice and the role of centrioles in centrosome assembly.

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          Most cited references 9

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          SAS-4 is a C. elegans centriolar protein that controls centrosome size.

          Centrosomes consist of a centriole pair surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM). Previous work suggested that centrioles are required to organize PCM to form a structurally stable organelle. Here, we characterize SAS-4, a centriole component in Caenorhabditis elegans. Like tubulin, SAS-4 is incorporated into centrioles during their duplication and remains stably associated thereafter. In the absence of SAS-4, centriole duplication fails. Partial depletion of SAS-4 results in structurally defective centrioles that contain reduced levels of SAS-4 and organize proportionally less PCM. Thus, SAS-4 is a centriole-associated component whose amount dictates centrosome size. These results provide novel insight into the poorly understood role of centrioles as centrosomal organizers.
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            Centrosome maturation and mitotic spindle assembly in C. elegans require SPD-5, a protein with multiple coiled-coil domains.

            The maternally expressed C. elegans gene spd-5 encodes a centrosomal protein with multiple coiled-coil domains. During mitosis in mutants with reduced levels of SPD-5, microtubules assemble but radiate from condensed chromosomes without forming a spindle, and mitosis fails. SPD-5 is required for the centrosomal localization of gamma-tubulin, XMAP-215, and Aurora A kinase family members, but SPD-5 accumulates at centrosomes in mutants lacking these proteins. Furthermore, SPD-5 interacts genetically with a dynein heavy chain. We propose that SPD-5, along with dynein, is required for centrosome maturation and mitotic spindle assembly.
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              Centrioles regulate centrosome size by controlling the rate of Cnn incorporation into the PCM.

              centrosomes are major microtubule organizing centers in animal cells, and they comprise a pair of centrioles surrounded by an amorphous pericentriolar material (PCM). Centrosome size is tightly regulated during the cell cycle, and it has recently been shown that the two centrosomes in certain stem cells are often asymmetric in size. There is compelling evidence that centrioles influence centrosome size, but how centrosome size is set remains mysterious. we show that the conserved Drosophila PCM protein Cnn exhibits an unusual dynamic behavior, because Cnn molecules only incorporate into the PCM closest to the centrioles and then spread outward through the rest of the PCM. Cnn incorporation into the PCM is driven by an interaction with the conserved centriolar proteins Asl (Cep152 in humans) and DSpd-2 (Cep192 in humans). The rate of Cnn incorporation into the PCM is tightly regulated during the cell cycle, and this rate influences the amount of Cnn in the PCM, which in turn is an important determinant of overall centrosome size. Intriguingly, daughter centrioles in syncytial embryos only start to incorporate Cnn as they disengage from their mothers; this generates a centrosome size asymmetry, with mother centrioles always initially organizing more Cnn than their daughters. centrioles can control the amount of PCM they organize by regulating the rate of Cnn incorporation into the PCM. This mechanism can explain how centrosome size is regulated during the cell cycle and also allows mother and daughter centrioles to set centrosome size independently of one another.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Curr Biol
                Curr. Biol
                Current Biology
                Cell Press
                0960-9822
                1879-0445
                03 August 2015
                03 August 2015
                : 25
                : 15
                : R648-R649
                Affiliations
                Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Vienna Biocenter (VBC), Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9, A-1030 Vienna, Austria
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author alex.dammermann@ 123456univie.ac.at
                Article
                S0960-9822(15)00663-6
                10.1016/j.cub.2015.05.060
                4533240
                26241136
                © 2015 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Correspondence

                Life sciences

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