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      Early administration of epinephrine (adrenaline) in patients with cardiac arrest with initial shockable rhythm in hospital: propensity score matched analysis

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          Objectives To evaluate whether patients who experience cardiac arrest in hospital receive epinephrine (adrenaline) within the two minutes after the first defibrillation (contrary to American Heart Association guidelines) and to evaluate the association between early administration of epinephrine and outcomes in this population.

          Design Prospective observational cohort study.

          Setting Analysis of data from the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry, which includes data from more than 300 hospitals in the United States.

          Participants Adults in hospital who experienced cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, including patients who had a first defibrillation within two minutes of the cardiac arrest and who remained in a shockable rhythm after defibrillation.

          Intervention Epinephrine given within two minutes after the first defibrillation.

          Main outcome measures Survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge with a good functional outcome. A propensity score was calculated for the receipt of epinephrine within two minutes after the first defibrillation, based on multiple characteristics of patients, events, and hospitals. Patients who received epinephrine at either zero, one, or two minutes after the first defibrillation were then matched on the propensity score with patients who were “at risk” of receiving epinephrine within the same minute but who did not receive it.

          Results 2978patients were matched on the propensity score, and the groups were well balanced. 1510 (51%) patients received epinephrine within two minutes after the first defibrillation, which is contrary to current American Heart Association guidelines. Epinephrine given within the first two minutes after the first defibrillation was associated with decreased odds of survival in the propensity score matched analysis (odds ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.59 to 0.82; P<0.001). Early epinephrine administration was also associated with a decreased odds of return of spontaneous circulation (0.71, 0.60 to 0.83; P<0.001) and good functional outcome (0.69, 0.58 to 0.83; P<0.001).

          Conclusion Half of patients with a persistent shockable rhythm received epinephrine within two minutes after the first defibrillation, contrary to current American Heart Association guidelines. The receipt of epinephrine within two minutes after the first defibrillation was associated with decreased odds of survival to hospital discharge as well as decreased odds of return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge with a good functional outcome.

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          Most cited references 48

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            Cardiopulmonary resuscitation of adults in the hospital: a report of 14720 cardiac arrests from the National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

            The National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (NRCPR) is an American Heart Association (AHA)-sponsored, prospective, multisite, observational study of in-hospital resuscitation. The NRCPR is currently the largest registry of its kind. The purpose of this article is to describe the NRCPR and to provide the first comprehensive, Utstein-based, standardized characterization of in-hospital resuscitation in the United States. All adult (>/=18 years of age) and pediatric (<18 years of age) patients, visitors, employees, and staff within a facility (including ambulatory care areas) who experience a resuscitation event are eligible for inclusion in the NRCPR database. Between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, 14720 cardiac arrests that met inclusion criteria occurred in adults at the 207 participating hospitals. An organized emergency team is available 24 h a day, 7 days a week in 86% of participating institutions. The three most common reasons for cardiac arrest in adults were (1) cardiac arrhythmia, (2) acute respiratory insufficiency, and (3) hypotension. Overall, 44% of adult in-hospital cardiac arrest victims had a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC); 17% survived to hospital discharge. Despite the fact that a primary arrhythmia was one of the precipitating events in nearly one half of adult cardiac arrests, ventricular fibrillation (VF) was the initial pulseless rhythm in only 16% of in-hospital cardiac arrest victims. ROSC occurred in 58% of VF cases, yielding a survival-to-hospital discharge rate of 34% in this subset of patients. An automated external defibrillator was used to provide initial defibrillation in only 1.4% of patients whose initial cardiac arrest rhythm was VF. Neurological outcome in discharged survivors was generally good. Eighty-six percent of patients with Cerebral Performance Category-1 (CPC-1) at the time of hospital admission had a postarrest CPC-1 at the time of hospital discharge.
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              Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome reports: update and simplification of the Utstein templates for resuscitation registries. A statement for healthcare professionals from a task force of the international liaison committee on resuscitation (American Heart Association, European Resuscitation Council, Australian Resuscitation Council, New Zealand Resuscitation Council, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Resuscitation Council of Southern Africa).

              Outcome following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation is dependent on critical interventions, particularly early defibrillation, effective chest compressions, and advanced life support. Utstein-style definitions and reporting templates have been used extensively in published studies of cardiac arrest, which has led to greater understanding of the elements of resuscitation practice and progress toward international consensus on science and resuscitation guidelines. Despite the development of Utstein templates to standardize research reports of cardiac arrest, international registries have yet to be developed. In April 2002 a task force of ILCOR met in Melbourne, Australia, to review worldwide experience with the Utstein definitions and reporting templates. The task force revised the core reporting template and definitions by consensus. Care was taken to build on previous definitions, changing data elements and operational definitions only on the basis of published data and experience derived from those registries that have used Utstein-style reporting. Attention was focused on decreasing the complexity of the existing templates and addressing logistical difficulties in collecting specific core and supplementary (i.e., essential and desirable) data elements recommended by previous Utstein consensus conference. Inconsistencies in terminology between in-hospital and out-of-hospital Utstein templates were also addressed. The task force produced a reporting tool for essential data that can be used for both quality improvement (registries) and research reports and that should be applicable to both adults and children. The revised and simplified template includes practical and succinct operational definitions. It is anticipated that the revised template will enable better and more accurate completion of all reports of cardiac arrest and resuscitation attempts. Problems with data definition, collection, linkage, confidentiality, management, and registry implementation are acknowledged and potential solutions offered. Uniform collection and tracking of registry data should enable better continuous quality improvement within every hospital, EMS system, and community.

                Author and article information

                Role: research fellow
                Role: professor of public health and epidemiology
                Role: assistant professor
                Role: instructor of medicine
                Role: director of critical care quality
                Role: professor of emergency medicine
                Role: director of center for resuscitation science
                The BMJ
                BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
                6 April 2016
                : 353
                [1 ]Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Rosenberg Building, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215, USA
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, Bygn. 21, 1 Aarhus 8000, Denmark
                [3 ]Research Center for Emergency Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Trøjborgvej 72-74, Bygn. 30, Aarhus 8200, Denmark
                [4 ]Institute of Public Health, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Seestrasse 73, Berlin D-13347, Germany
                [5 ]Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
                [6 ]Department of Anesthesia Critical Care, Division of Critical Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
                [7 ]Department of Emergency Medicine, 400A Iroquois, 3600 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: M Donnino, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, One Deaconess Road, W/CC 2, Boston, MA 02215, USA mdonnino@ 123456bidmc.harvard.edu
                Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/.




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