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      Inflammation in Chronic Venous Insufficiency: Is the Problem Insurmountable?

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          Abstract

          One of the hallmarks of venous insufficiency is an elevated venous pressure. While a number of mechanisms have been proposed for vascular and parenchymal cell damage following venous pressure elevation, such as white cell infiltration, a key question remains as to what degree venous occlusion and flow interruption per se may constitute a risk factor in venous disease. To gain an insight into this mechanism, we examined the effect of venous occlusion followed by reperfusion. A draining venule (circa 50 µm) in the rat mesentery was occluded with a micropipette (1 h) followed by reperfusion (1 h). The procedure serves to raise the microvascular pressure to about 31 mm Hg during the occlusion while the flow is completely stopped in the local venous and capillary network. Parenchymal cell death in the mesentery was monitored by propidium iodide (PI) labeling. The number of PI-positive cells significantly increased predominantly during reperfusion. A 1-week treatment with a micronized purified flavonoid fraction (100 mg/kg/day) served to significantly reduce parenchymal cell death as well as leukocyte rolling, adhesion to postcapillary venule, and migration into the tissue both during occlusion and reperfusion. The results indicate, that even in an initially symptomless tissue, flow reduction combined with microvascular pressure elevation during venous occlusion results in tissue damage not only during reperfusion (as in arterial occlusion) but also during occlusion.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Flavonoids are scavengers of superoxide anions.

          Seven flavonoids and three non-flavonoid antioxidants, i.e. butylated hydroxyanisole, chlorpromazine and BW 755 C, were studied as potential scavengers of oxygen free radicals. Superoxide anions were generated enzymatically in a xanthine-xanthine oxidase system and non-enzymatically in a phenazine methosulphate-NADH system, and assayed by reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium. The generation of malonaldehyde (MDA) by the ascorbate-stimulated air-oxidised boiled rat liver microsomes was considered as an index of the non-enzymatic formation of hydroxyl radicals. Flavonoids but not non-flavonoid antioxidants lowered the concentration of detectable superoxide anions in both enzymic and non-enzymic systems which generated these SOD-sensitive radicals. The most effective inhibitors of superoxide anions were quercetin, myricetin and rutin. Four out of seven investigated flavonoids seemed also to suppress the activity of xanthine oxidase as measured by a decrease in uric acid biosynthesis. All ten investigated compounds inhibited the MDA formation by rat liver microsomes. Non-flavonoid antioxidants were more potent MDA inhibitors than flavonoids. It is concluded that antioxidant properties of flavonoids are effected mainly via scavenging of superoxide anions whereas non-flavonoid antioxidants act on further links of free radical chain reactions, most likely by scavenging of hydroxyl radicals.
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            Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of flavonoids

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              Inhibition of lipoxygenase-dependent lipid peroxidation by quercetin: Mechanism of antioxidative function

               Umeo Takahama (1985)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-6933-0
                978-3-318-00479-3
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                1999
                August 1999
                27 August 1999
                : 36
                : Suppl 1
                : 3-10
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Bioengineering and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, and bDepartment of Surgery, University of California, San Diego, Calif., USA; cAngiology Division, Institut de Recherches Internationales Servier, Courbevoie, France
                Article
                54068 J Vasc Res 1999;36(suppl 1):3–10
                10.1159/000054068
                10474045
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 35, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Paper

                General medicine, Neurology, Cardiovascular Medicine, Internal medicine, Nephrology

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