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      Cutaneous Manifestations of Scleroderma and Scleroderma-Like Disorders: a Comprehensive Review

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          Systemic sclerosis.

          Systemic sclerosis, also called scleroderma, is an immune-mediated rheumatic disease that is characterised by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs and vasculopathy. Although systemic sclerosis is uncommon, it has a high morbidity and mortality. Improved understanding of systemic sclerosis has allowed better management of the disease, including improved classification and more systematic assessment and follow-up. Additionally, treatments for specific complications have emerged and a growing evidence base supports the use of immune suppression for the treatment of skin and lung fibrosis. Some manifestations of the disease, such as scleroderma renal crisis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, digital ulceration, and gastro-oesophageal reflux, are now treatable. However, the burden of non-lethal complications associated with systemic sclerosis is substantial and is likely to become more of a challenge. Here, we review the clinical features of systemic sclerosis and describe the best practice approaches for its management. Furthermore, we identify future areas for development.
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            Genome-wide association study of systemic sclerosis identifies CD247 as a new susceptibility locus.

            Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs that leads to profound disability and premature death. To identify new SSc susceptibility loci, we conducted the first genome-wide association study in a population of European ancestry including a total of 2,296 individuals with SSc and 5,171 controls. Analysis of 279,621 autosomal SNPs followed by replication testing in an independent case-control set of European ancestry (2,753 individuals with SSc (cases) and 4,569 controls) identified a new susceptibility locus for systemic sclerosis at CD247 (1q22-23, rs2056626, P = 2.09 x 10(-7) in the discovery samples, P = 3.39 x 10(-9) in the combined analysis). Additionally, we confirm and firmly establish the role of the MHC (P = 2.31 x 10(-18)), IRF5 (P = 1.86 x 10(-13)) and STAT4 (P = 3.37 x 10(-9)) gene regions as SSc genetic risk factors.
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              Preliminary criteria for the very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis: results of a Delphi Consensus Study from EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research Group.

              To identify a core set of preliminary items considered as important for the very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). A list of items provided by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Scleroderma Trial and Research(EUSTAR) centres were subjected to a Delphi exercise among 110 experts in the field of SSc. In round 1, experts were asked to choose the items they considered as the most important for the very early diagnosis of SSc. In round 2, experts were asked to reconsider the items accepted after the first stage. In round 3, the clinical relevance of selected items and their importance as measures that would lead to an early referral process were rated using appropriateness scores. Physicians from 85 EUSTAR centres participated in the study and provided an initial list of 121 items. After three Delphi rounds, the steering committee, with input from external experts, collapsed the 121 items into three domains containing seven items, developed as follows: skin domain (puffy fingers/puffy swollen digits turning into sclerodactily); vascular domain (Raynaud's phenomenon, abnormal capillaroscopy with scleroderma pattern) and laboratory domain (antinuclear, anticentromere and antitopoisomerase-I antibodies). Finally, the whole assembly of EUSTAR centres ratified with a majority vote the results in a final face-to-face meeting. The three Delphi rounds allowed us to identify the items considered by experts as necessary for the very early diagnosis of SSc. The validation of these items to establish diagnostic criteria is currently ongoing in a prospective observational cohort.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
                Clinic Rev Allerg Immunol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1080-0549
                1559-0267
                December 2017
                July 16 2017
                December 2017
                : 53
                : 3
                : 306-336
                Article
                10.1007/s12016-017-8625-4
                28712039
                e1fe5ea7-ad42-45cb-ab52-324469d191f5
                © 2017

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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