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Impact of Nanoparticles on Brain Health: An Up to Date Overview

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      Abstract

      Nanoparticles are zero-dimensional nanomaterials and, based on their nature, they can be categorized into organic, inorganic, and composites nanoparticles. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, nanoparticles are extensively used in a variety of fields, including medicine, pharmaceutics, and food industry. Although they have the potential to improve the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases, it is fundamentally important to develop standardized toxicological studies, which can prevent the induction of neurotoxic effects. The focus of this review is to emphasize both the beneficial and negative effects of nanoparticles on brain health.

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      Engineered nanoparticles interacting with cells: size matters

      With the rapid advancement of nanoscience and nanotechnology, detailed knowledge of interactions between engineered nanomaterials and cells, tissues and organisms has become increasingly important, especially in regard to possible hazards to human health. This review intends to give an overview of current research on nano-bio interactions, with a focus on the effects of NP size on their interactions with live cells. We summarize common techniques to characterize NP size, highlight recent work on the impact of NP size on active and passive cellular internalization and intracellular localization. Cytotoxic effects are also discussed.
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        Nanoparticle-mediated brain drug delivery: Overcoming blood-brain barrier to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

        The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a vital boundary between neural tissue and circulating blood. The BBB's unique and protective features control brain homeostasis as well as ion and molecule movement. Failure in maintaining any of these components results in the breakdown of this specialized multicellular structure and consequently promotes neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In several high incidence pathologies such as stroke, Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) the BBB is impaired. However, even a damaged and more permeable BBB can pose serious challenges to drug delivery into the brain. The use of nanoparticle (NP) formulations able to encapsulate molecules with therapeutic value, while targeting specific transport processes in the brain vasculature, may enhance drug transport through the BBB in neurodegenerative/ischemic disorders and target relevant regions in the brain for regenerative processes. In this review, we will discuss BBB composition and characteristics and how these features are altered in pathology, namely in stroke, AD and PD. Additionally, factors influencing an efficient intravenous delivery of polymeric and inorganic NPs into the brain as well as NP-related delivery systems with the most promising functional outcomes will also be discussed.
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          Effects of nanomaterial physicochemical properties on in vivo toxicity.

          It is well recognized that physical and chemical properties of materials can alter dramatically at nanoscopic scale, and the growing use of nanotechnologies requires careful assessment of unexpected toxicities and biological interactions. However, most in vivo toxicity concerns focus primarily on pulmonary, oral, and dermal exposures to ultrafine particles. As nanomaterials expand as therapeutics and as diagnostic tools, parenteral administration of engineered nanomaterials should also be recognized as a critical aspect for toxicity consideration. Due to the complex nature of nanomaterials, conflicting studies have led to different views of their safety. Here, the physicochemical properties of four representative nanomaterials (dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, and gold nanoparticles) as it relates to their toxicity after systemic exposure is discussed.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Emergency University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania; telepapa@ 123456hotmail.com (D.M.T.); raluca.teleanu@ 123456umfcd.ro (R.I.T.)
            [2 ]Faculty of Engineering in Foreign Languages, 060042 Bucharest, Romania; cristina.chircov@ 123456yahoo.com
            [3 ]Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 011061 Bucharest, Romania; grumezescu@ 123456yahoo.com
            [4 ]ICUB—Research Institute of University of Bucharest, University of Bucharest, 36-46 M. Kogalniceanu Blvd., 050107 Bucharest, Romania
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: avolceanov@ 123456yahoo.co.uk ; Tel.: +4021–402-3997
            Journal
            J Clin Med
            J Clin Med
            jcm
            Journal of Clinical Medicine
            MDPI
            2077-0383
            27 November 2018
            December 2018
            : 7
            : 12
            30486404 6306759 10.3390/jcm7120490 jcm-07-00490
            © 2018 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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