53
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Sodium-Glucose Cotransport Inhibition With Dapagliflozin in Type 2 Diabetes

      , MD, PHD 1 , , MD 2 , , MD 3 , , PHD 4 , , MD 1

      Diabetes Care

      American Diabetes Association

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE

          Dapagliflozin, a novel inhibitor of renal sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, allows an insulin-independent approach to improve type 2 diabetes hyperglycemia. In this multiple-dose study we evaluated the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in type 2 diabetic patients.

          RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

          Type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to one of five dapagliflozin doses, metformin XR, or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary objective was to compare mean change from baseline in A1C. Other objectives included comparison of changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), weight, adverse events, and laboratory measurements.

          RESULTS

          After 12 weeks, dapagliflozin induced moderate glucosuria (52–85 g urinary glucose/day) and demonstrated significant glycemic improvements versus placebo (ΔA1C −0.55 to −0.90% and ΔFPG −16 to −31 mg/dl). Weight loss change versus placebo was −1.3 to −2.0 kg. There was no change in renal function. Serum uric acid decreased, serum magnesium increased, serum phosphate increased at higher doses, and dose-related 24-h urine volume and hematocrit increased, all of small magnitude. Treatment-emergent adverse events were similar across all groups.

          CONCLUSIONS

          Dapagliflozin improved hyperglycemia and facilitates weight loss in type 2 diabetic patients by inducing controlled glucosuria with urinary loss of ∼200–300 kcal/day. Dapagliflozin treatment demonstrated no persistent, clinically significant osmolarity, volume, or renal status changes.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 24

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Efficacy and safety of incretin therapy in type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

          Pharmacotherapies that augment the incretin pathway have recently become available, but their role in the management of type 2 diabetes is not well defined. To assess the efficacy and safety of incretin-based therapy in adults with type 2 diabetes based on randomized controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals or as abstracts. We searched MEDLINE (1966-May 20, 2007) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (second quarter, 2007) for English-language randomized controlled trials involving an incretin mimetic (glucagonlike peptide 1 [GLP-1] analogue) or enhancer (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 [DPP4] inhibitor). We also searched prescribing information, relevant Web sites, reference lists and citation sections of recovered articles, and abstracts presented at recent conferences. Randomized controlled trials were selected if they were at least 12 weeks in duration, compared incretin therapy with placebo or other diabetes medication, and reported hemoglobin A(1c) data in nonpregnant adults with type 2 diabetes. Two reviewers independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. Differences were resolved by consensus. Meta-analyses were conducted for several efficacy and safety outcomes. Of 355 potentially relevant articles identified, 51 were retrieved for detailed evaluation and 29 met the inclusion criteria. Incretins lowered hemoglobin A(1c) compared with placebo (weighted mean difference, -0.97% [95% confidence interval {CI}, -1.13% to -0.81%] for GLP-1 analogues and -0.74% [95% CI, -0.85% to -0.62%] for DPP4 inhibitors) and were noninferior to other hypoglycemic agents. Glucagonlike peptide 1 analogues resulted in weight loss (1.4 kg and 4.8 kg vs placebo and insulin, respectively) while DPP4 inhibitors were weight neutral. Glucagonlike peptide 1 analogues had more gastrointestinal side effects (risk ratio, 2.9 [95% CI, 2.0-4.2] for nausea and 3.2 [95% CI, 2.5-4.4] for vomiting). Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors had an increased risk of infection (risk ratio, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0-1.4] for nasopharyngitis and 1.5 [95% CI, 1.0-2.2] for urinary tract infection) and headache (risk ratio, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.1-1.7]). All but 3 trials had a 30-week or shorter duration; thus, long-term efficacy and safety could not be evaluated. Incretin therapy offers an alternative option to currently available hypoglycemic agents for nonpregnant adults with type 2 diabetes, with modest efficacy and a favorable weight-change profile. Careful postmarketing surveillance for adverse effects, especially among the DPP4 inhibitors, and continued evaluation in longer-term studies and in clinical practice are required to determine the role of this new class among current pharmacotherapies for type 2 diabetes.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Correction of hyperglycemia with phlorizin normalizes tissue sensitivity to insulin in diabetic rats.

            Insulin resistance is characteristic of the diabetic state. To define the role of hyperglycemia in generation of the insulin resistance, we examined the effect of phlorizin treatment on tissue sensitivity to insulin in partially pancreatectomized rats. Five groups were studied: group I, sham-operated controls; group II, partially pancreatectomized diabetic rats with moderate glucose intolerance; group III, diabetic rats treated with phlorizin to normalize glucose tolerance; group IV, phlorizin-treated controls; and group V, phlorizin-treated diabetic rats restudied after discontinuation of phlorizin. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with the euglyemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique in awake, unstressed rats. Insulin-mediated glucose metabolism was reduced by approximately 30% (P less than 0.001) in diabetic rats. Phlorizin treatment of diabetic rats completely normalized insulin sensitivity but had no effect on insulin action in controls. Discontinuation of phlorizin in phlorizin-treated diabetic rats resulted in the reemergence of insulin resistance. These data demonstrate that a reduction of beta-cell mass leads to the development of insulin resistance, and correction of hyperglycemia with phlorizin, without change in insulin levels, normalizes insulin sensitivity. These results provide the first in vivo evidence that hyperglycemia per se can lead to the development of insulin resistance.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Active sugar transport in health and disease.

              Secondary active glucose transport occurs by at least four members of the SLC5 gene family. This review considers the structure and function of two premier members, SGLT1 and SGLT2, and their role in intestinal glucose absorption and renal glucose reabsorption. Genetics disorders of SGLTs include Glucose-Galactose Malabsorption, and Familial Renal Glucosuria. SGLT1 plays a central role in Oral Rehydration Therapy used so effectively to treat secretory diarrhoea such as cholera. Increasing attention is being focused on SGLTs as drug targets for the therapy of diabetes.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Care
                diacare
                dcare
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                American Diabetes Association
                0149-5992
                1935-5548
                April 2009
                29 December 2008
                : 32
                : 4
                : 650-657
                Affiliations
                1Global Clinical Research, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, New Jersey;
                2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada;
                3Centro de Investigación Cardiometabólica, Aguascalientes, Mexico;
                4Global Biometric Sciences, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, New Jersey.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: James F. List, james.list@ 123456bms.com .
                Article
                1863
                10.2337/dc08-1863
                2660449
                19114612
                © 2009 by the American Diabetes Association.

                Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ for details.

                Product
                Categories
                Original Research
                Emerging Treatments and Technologies

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

                Comments

                Comment on this article